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A manned rocket accelerates at a rate of 20 m/s 2 size 12{"20 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} during launch. How long does it take the rocket reach a velocity of 400 m/s?

To answer this, choose an equation that allows you to solve for time t size 12{t} {} , given only a size 12{a} {} , v 0 size 12{v rSub { size 8{0} } } {} , and v size 12{v} {} .

v = v 0 + at size 12{v=v"" lSub { size 8{0} } + ital "at"} {}

Rearrange to solve for t size 12{t} {} .

t = v v 0 a = 400 m/s 0 m/s 20 m/s 2 = 20 s size 12{t= { {v - v"" lSub { size 8{0} } } over {a} } = { {"400 m/s" - "0 m/s"} over {"20 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } } ="20 s"} {}
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Section summary

  • To simplify calculations we take acceleration to be constant, so that a - = a size 12{ { bar {a}}=a} {} at all times.
  • We also take initial time to be zero.
  • Initial position and velocity are given a subscript 0; final values have no subscript. Thus,
    Δ t = t Δ x = x x 0 Δ v = v v 0
  • The following kinematic equations for motion with constant a size 12{a} {} are useful:
    x = x 0 + v - t size 12{x=x rSub { size 8{0} } + { bar {v}}t} {}
    v - = v 0 + v 2 size 12{ { bar {v}}= { {v rSub { size 8{0} } +v} over {2} } } {}
    v = v 0 + at size 12{v=v rSub { size 8{0} } + ital "at"} {}
    x = x 0 + v 0 t + 1 2 at 2 size 12{x=x rSub { size 8{0} } +v rSub { size 8{0} } t+ { {1} over {2} } ital "at" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
    v 2 = v 0 2 + 2 a x x 0 size 12{v rSup { size 8{2} } =v rSub { size 8{0} } rSup { size 8{2} } +2a left (x - x rSub { size 8{0} } right )} {}
  • In vertical motion, y size 12{y} {} is substituted for x size 12{x} {} .

Problems&Exercises

An Olympic-class sprinter starts a race with an acceleration of 4 . 50 m/s 2 size 12{4 "." "50 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . (a) What is her speed 2.40 s later? (b) Sketch a graph of her position vs. time for this period.

(a) 10 . 8 m/s size 12{"10" "." 8" m/s"} {}

(b)

Line graph of position in meters versus time in seconds. The line begins at the origin and is concave up, with its slope increasing over time.
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A well-thrown ball is caught in a well-padded mitt. If the deceleration of the ball is 2 . 10 × 10 4 m/s 2 , and 1.85 ms ( 1 ms = 10 3 s ) size 12{ \( "1 ms"="10" rSup { size 8{-3} } " s" \) } {} elapses from the time the ball first touches the mitt until it stops, what was the initial velocity of the ball?

38.9 m/s (about 87 miles per hour)

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A bullet in a gun is accelerated from the firing chamber to the end of the barrel at an average rate of 6 .20 × 10 5 m/s 2 size 12{6 "." "20"´"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} for 8 . 10 × 10 4 s . What is its muzzle velocity (that is, its final velocity)?

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(a) A light-rail commuter train accelerates at a rate of 1 . 35 m/s 2 size 12{1 "." "35 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . How long does it take to reach its top speed of 80.0 km/h, starting from rest? (b) The same train ordinarily decelerates at a rate of 1 . 65 m/s 2 size 12{1 "." "65 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . How long does it take to come to a stop from its top speed? (c) In emergencies the train can decelerate more rapidly, coming to rest from 80.0 km/h in 8.30 s. What is its emergency deceleration in m/s 2 size 12{"m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} ?

(a) 16 . 5 s size 12{`"16" "." "5 s"} {}

(b) 13 . 5 s size 12{"13" "." "5 s"} {}

(c) 2 . 68 m/s 2 size 12{` - 2 "." "68 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

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While entering a freeway, a car accelerates from rest at a rate of 2 . 40 m/s 2 size 12{2 "." "40 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} for 12.0 s. (a) Draw a sketch of the situation. (b) List the knowns in this problem. (c) How far does the car travel in those 12.0 s? To solve this part, first identify the unknown, and then discuss how you chose the appropriate equation to solve for it. After choosing the equation, show your steps in solving for the unknown, check your units, and discuss whether the answer is reasonable. (d) What is the car's final velocity? Solve for this unknown in the same manner as in part (c), showing all steps explicitly.

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At the end of a race, a runner decelerates from a velocity of 9.00 m/s at a rate of 2 . 00 m/s 2 size 12{2 "." "00 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . (a) How far does she travel in the next 5.00 s? (b) What is her final velocity? (c) Evaluate the result. Does it make sense?

(a) 20 . 0 m size 12{"20" "." "0 m"} {}

(b) 1 . 00 m/s size 12{ - 1 "." "00"`"m/s"} {}

(c) This result does not really make sense. If the runner starts at 9.00 m/s and decelerates at 2 . 00 m/s 2 size 12{2 "." "00 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , then she will have stopped after 4.50 s. If she continues to decelerate, she will be running backwards.

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Professional Application:

Blood is accelerated from rest to 30.0 cm/s in a distance of 1.80 cm by the left ventricle of the heart. (a) Make a sketch of the situation. (b) List the knowns in this problem. (c) How long does the acceleration take? To solve this part, first identify the unknown, and then discuss how you chose the appropriate equation to solve for it. After choosing the equation, show your steps in solving for the unknown, checking your units. (d) Is the answer reasonable when compared with the time for a heartbeat?

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Questions & Answers

an 8.0 capacitor is connected by to the terminals of 60Hz whoes rms voltage is 150v. a.find the capacity reactance and rms to the circuit
Aisha Reply
thanks so much. i undersooth well
Valdes Reply
what is physics
Nwafor Reply
is the study of matter in relation to energy
Kintu
a submersible pump is dropped a borehole and hits the level of water at the bottom of the borehole 5 seconds later.determine the level of water in the borehole
Obrian Reply
what is power?
aron Reply
power P = Work done per second W/ t. It means the more power, the stronger machine
Sphere
e.g. heart Uses 2 W per beat.
Rohit
A spherica, concave shaving mirror has a radius of curvature of 32 cm .what is the magnification of a persons face. when it is 12cm to the left of the vertex of the mirror
Alona Reply
did you solve?
Shii
1.75cm
Ridwan
my name is Abu m.konnek I am a student of a electrical engineer and I want you to help me
Abu
the magnification k = f/(f-d) with focus f = R/2 =16 cm; d =12 cm k = 16/4 =4
Sphere
A weather vane is some sort of directional arrow parallel to the ground that may rotate freely in a horizontal plane. A typical weather vane has a large cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction the arrow is pointing, like a “One Way” street sign. The purpose of the weather vane is to indicate the direction of the wind. As wind blows pa
Kavita Reply
hi
Godfred
what about the wind vane
Godfred
If a prism is fully imersed in water then the ray of light will normally dispersed or their is any difference?
Anurag Reply
the same behavior thru the prism out or in water bud abbot
Ju
If this will experimented with a hollow(vaccum) prism in water then what will be result ?
Anurag
What was the previous far point of a patient who had laser correction that reduced the power of her eye by 7.00 D, producing a normal distant vision power of 50.0 D for her?
Jaydie Reply
What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?
Jaydie
What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?
Jaydie
A young woman with normal distant vision has a 10.0% ability to accommodate (that is, increase) the power of her eyes. What is the closest object she can see clearly?
Jaydie
29/20 ? maybes
Ju
In what ways does physics affect the society both positively or negatively
Princewill Reply
how can I read physics...am finding it difficult to understand...pls help
rerry Reply
try to read several books on phy don't just rely one. some authors explain better than other.
Ju
And don't forget to check out YouTube videos on the subject. Videos offer a different visual way to learn easier.
Ju
hope that helps
Ju
I have a exam on 12 february
David Reply
what is velocity
Jiti
the speed of something in a given direction.
Ju
what is a magnitude in physics
Jiti Reply
Propose a force standard different from the example of a stretched spring discussed in the text. Your standard must be capable of producing the same force repeatedly.
Giovani Reply
What is meant by dielectric charge?
It's Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics for ap® courses. OpenStax CNX. Nov 04, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11844/1.14
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