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Intro into the pentose pathway

In most introductory biology and biochemistry courses focus on glycolysis (oxidation of glucose to pyruvate) and the TCA cycle, the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl~CoA and the eventual complete oxidation to CO 2 . While these are extremely important and universal reactions, most courses leave out the pentose phosphate pathway or hexose monophosphate shunt. This pathway, like the TCA cycle is partially cyclic in nature, where 3 glucose molecules enter and 2 glucose and 1 glyceraldyde-3-phosphate leave. The 2 glucose molecules can recycle and the G3P enters glycolysis. Its an important pathway because it is the primary mechanism for the formation of pentoses, the five carbon sugar required for nucleotide biosynthesis as well as the formation of a variety of other essential cellular components and NADPH, the cellular reductant primarily used in anabolic reactions.

A note from the instuctor

As with the modules on glycolysis and the TCA cycle, there is a lot of material in this module. AS with the other modules, I do not expect you to memorize specific names of compounds or enzymes. However, I will give you those names for completeness. For exams I will always provide you with the pathways we discuss in class and in the BioStax Biology text modules. What you need to be able to do is understand what is going on in each reaction. We will go over in lecture, problems that will be similar to those I will ask of you on exams. Do not be overwhelmed with specific enzyme names and specific structures. What you should know are the general types of enzymes used and the types of structures found. For example you do not need to memorize the structures of eyrthose or sedoheptulose. You will need to know that both are sugars, the former a 4-carbon sugar and the latter a 7-carbon sugar. Remember the ending "ose" identifies the compound as a sugar. In addition, you will not need to know the details of the two unique reactins found in the PPP, the transketolase and transaldolase reactions, thow you do need to be able to identify a ketone containing sugar versus an aldehyde containing sugar. Finally, you will not be expected to memorize enzyme names, but like in glycolysis and the TCA cycle you will be expected to know the various types of reactions a type of enzyme can catalyze, for example, a transaldolase moves aldehyde groups from one compound to another. This is the level of understanding I expect. If you have any questions please ask.

Oxidatvie pentose phosphate pathway: aka the hexose monophosphate shunt

While glycolysis has evolved to oxidize hexoses to form carbon precursors for biosynthesis, energy (ATP) and reducing power (NADH) the Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP) has evolved to utilize pentoses or five carbon sugars. Pentose are required precursors for nucleotides and other essential biomolecules. The PPP also generates NADPH instead of NADH, which is required for most anabolic reactions. The PPP, in conjuction with Glycolysis and the TCA cycle make up what we call Central Metabolism. These 3 central pathways (along with the reaction Pyruvate to Acetyl~CoA) are responsible for producing all of the necessary precursor molecules required by all cells. The PPP is responsible for producing pentos-phosphates (5 carbon sugars), Eyrthrose-phosphate (four carbon sugars)and NADPH . This pathway is also responsible for the production of Sedoheptulose -phosphate , an essential 7-carbon sugar used in the outer cell membranes of Gram-negative bacteria.

Below is a diagram of the pathway. The pathway is complex and involves a variety of novel rearrangement reactions that move two and three carbon units around. These reactions called transaldolase and transketalase are used to produce the intermediates within the pathway. The net result is oxidation and subsequent decarboxylation of glucose to form a pentose. The total reaction involves 3 glucose-6-Phosphate (in green) molecules being oxidized to form 3 CO 2 molecules, 1 glyceraldehyde-Phosphate (in red), and 2 hexose-phosphates (in red). In this cycle, the formed glyceradehyde-Phosphate feeds into glycolysis and the 2 hexose-Phosphates (glucose-Phosphates) can recycle into the PPP or gycolysis.

Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Take home message

As shown in Figure 2, the net result of the pathway is 1 trios-phosphate (glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate) that can then be further oxidized via glycolysis; 2 recycled hexose-phosphates (in the form of either glucose-6-phosphae or fructose-6-phosphate) and NADPH which is required reductant for many biosynthetic (anabolic) reactions. The pathway provides a variety of intermediate sugar-phosphates that the cell may require, such as pentose-phosphates (for nucleotides and some amino acids), erythrose-phosphate (for amino acids) and sedohepulose-phosphate, for Gram-negative bacteria.

The PPP along with glycolysis, the TCA cycle and the oxidation of Pyruvate to acetyl-Co makes up the major pathways of central metabolism and is required to some degree of all organisms to construct the basic substrates to create the building blocks of life.

Section summary

By the end of this module you should be able to describe the role the pentose phosphate pathway plays in central metabolism. Determine the end-products of the pathway.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what does post-translational control refer to?
Teresa Reply
Bioremediation includes
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Source:  OpenStax, Ucd bis2a intro to biology v1.2. OpenStax CNX. Sep 22, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11890/1.1
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