# 46.3 Biogeochemical cycles  (Page 8/26)

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## The sulfur cycle

Sulfur is an essential element for the macromolecules of living things. As a part of the amino acid cysteine, it is involved in the formation of disulfide bonds within proteins, which help to determine their 3-D folding patterns, and hence their functions. As shown in [link] , sulfur cycles between the oceans, land, and atmosphere. Atmospheric sulfur is found in the form of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and enters the atmosphere in three ways: from the decomposition of organic molecules, from volcanic activity and geothermal vents, and from the burning of fossil fuels by humans.

On land, sulfur is deposited in four major ways: precipitation, direct fallout from the atmosphere, rock weathering, and geothermal vents ( [link] ). Atmospheric sulfur is found in the form of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and as rain falls through the atmosphere, sulfur is dissolved in the form of weak sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ). Sulfur can also fall directly from the atmosphere in a process called fallout    . Also, the weathering of sulfur-containing rocks releases sulfur into the soil. These rocks originate from ocean sediments that are moved to land by the geologic uplifting of ocean sediments. Terrestrial ecosystems can then make use of these soil sulfates ( ${\text{SO}}_{{\text{4}}^{-}}$ ), and upon the death and decomposition of these organisms, release the sulfur back into the atmosphere as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) gas.

Sulfur enters the ocean via runoff from land, from atmospheric fallout, and from underwater geothermal vents. Some ecosystems ( [link] ) rely on chemoautotrophs using sulfur as a biological energy source. This sulfur then supports marine ecosystems in the form of sulfates.

Human activities have played a major role in altering the balance of the global sulfur cycle. The burning of large quantities of fossil fuels, especially from coal, releases larger amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas into the atmosphere. As rain falls through this gas, it creates the phenomenon known as acid rain. Acid rain is corrosive rain caused by rainwater falling to the ground through sulfur dioxide gas, turning it into weak sulfuric acid, which causes damage to aquatic ecosystems. Acid rain damages the natural environment by lowering the pH of lakes, which kills many of the resident fauna; it also affects the man-made environment through the chemical degradation of buildings. For example, many marble monuments, such as the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC, have suffered significant damage from acid rain over the years. These examples show the wide-ranging effects of human activities on our environment and the challenges that remain for our future.

## Section summary

Mineral nutrients are cycled through ecosystems and their environment. Of particular importance are water, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. All of these cycles have major impacts on ecosystem structure and function. As human activities have caused major disturbances to these cycles, their study and modeling is especially important. A variety of human activities, such as pollution, oil spills, and events) have damaged ecosystems, potentially causing global climate change. The health of Earth depends on understanding these cycles and how to protect the environment from irreversible damage.

## Art connections

[link] Which of the following statements about the nitrogen cycle is false?

1. Ammonification converts organic nitrogenous matter from living organisms into ammonium (NH 4 + ).
2. Denitrification by bacteria converts nitrates (NO 3 ) to nitrogen gas (N 2 ).
3. Nitrification by bacteria converts nitrates (NO 3 ) to nitrites (NO 2 ).
4. Nitrogen fixing bacteria convert nitrogen gas (N 2 ) into organic compounds.

[link] C: Nitrification by bacteria converts nitrates (NO 3 ) to nitrites (NO 2 ).

the cell wall is targeted
what is rispiration
transpiration in organism
Liaquat
what is biology mean?
bio means life logy means study . study about life . physiology. morphology . anatomy and others organisms related topics is termed as biology
Darshan
Biology is the study life. that the study about living organism
SIRAJO
cell
Gachriku
what is oxidation?
the state or result of being oxidized
Emmanuel
hahahaha thanks, but my teachers requires a thorough meaning about that
Rose
Is the process of oxidizing ,the addition of oxygen to a compound with a loss of electrons, always accompanied by reduction
Korletey
loss of electron....
Anwar
thank you. 😊
Rose
thank you. 😊
Rose
thank you. 😊
Rose
what is oxidized
Oyebanji
the process or result of oxidizing or being oxidized.
Jersey
my pleasure
Anwar
Anwar
to rose...
Anwar
oxidation is the removal of oxygen addition of hydrogen
SIRAJO
what is genetic
genetic is the study of inheritance and variation
Elizon
Nice one genetic is the scientific study of heredity and variation in living organism
SIRAJO
Genetic : generally is the scientific study of heredity and variation in living thing .
Olorukooba
name the enzymes that i found in the saliva
salivary amylase
Isaac
draw a bacterium cell and label
What are the osmoregulatory functions of the kidney?
filter
Meenu
What is ecology
it is the study of interaction of living organisms with their environment.
Doris
what is cell
cell is the basic unit of life
Asiatou
cell is the basic structural and functional unit of an living organism
Darshan
a cell is the smallest and most basic unit of a living thing
John
cell is the basic unit of life. we are made up of 60,000 billions of cells.Each cell carry out a specific function in the body.
Pallavi
A cell is the smallest basic functioning unit of life.
Ali
where is the pectoral gridle located?
What is hypotonic
what is hypotonic
Dangaya
Hypotonic means weak solution
Ali
the difference between the two cells
explain the courses and the correction of lon term sightedness and short term sightedness
long sightedness is said to be like someone that can see far object clearly why short sightedness is someone that only can see near obect
SHEDRACK
why drinking excess alcohol causes thirst and dehydration
Elia
yes
Uzair
sure
Uzair
Uhm why is it so important to follow the nutritional process?
Elia
BC it contribute to the source of life
SHEDRACK