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The French language developed in this period. As early as 813 Charlemagne ordered sermons to be preached in lingua romana rustica , acknowledging this new language, which was nascent French. The six cases of classical Latin were merged into two cases, the predominant morphological characteristic of "old French". Twenty-nine years later came the first written text in French, a treaty known as the "Oath of Strasbourg" between Carolingian princes. (Ref. 168 ) Sometime in this or the preceding century a university was founded at Montpellier and it soon had a rabbinical school of Spanish origin which taught grammar and later medicine. (Ref. 125 )

The netherlands and belgium

On the eve of the Viking period, this area was concerned with a growing commerce in coastal markets called "wics", the greatest of which was Dorestad (with others in England), dealing in supplies of furs, skins and walrus tusks. (Ref. 8 ) In general, the Lowlands can be considered as a part of the Frankish kingdom and France, at this period.

Frisia disappeared and the North Sea was controlled by no one until the Danish chieftains became rulers of this and various large areas of Flanders at the end of the century.

Additional Notes

British isles

Additional Notes

England

Just before the era of the Viking invasions, participating with Dorestad as a "wic" market, was Hamwic, later to become Southampton. Early in the century Offa, of Mercia, sometimes known as "King of the English", bargained and dealt with Charlemagne apparently almost as an equal. But then the Danish Viking attacks began, first on the island of Sheppey in 835, continuing for thirty years of disturbance and destruction. Usually 30 to 300 Danish ships left home in the spring, raided during the summer and returned home to Denmark with the booty before winter. (Ref. 43 ) After A.D. 835 hardly a year passed in which there was no reference in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle as to Viking attacks on England. (Ref. 237 ) The year 865 was a turning point when that autumn a great Viking army landed in East Anglia, under Ivor the Boneless, to stay. In the meantime, however, King Egbert of Wessex had united most of the southern kingdoms under his control, including Wessex, the Cornish Welsh and the southern parts of both Mercia and Northumbria. (A.D. 829). After the Danes had taken the middle 2/3 of England by about 898, it remained for King Alfred, the Saxon, successor to Egbert, to finally defeat the Danes and confine them to the northeastern part of the country in an area to be called the "Danelaw". Alfred's victory involved the use of a great fleet to meet the invaders' reinforcements at sea before they could land. Payments of money apparently helped in this confinement, however, and even after their defeat the Danes kept their own customs and laws while living nominally under the English king. Many Danes later moved south and became important in English government and the church. (Ref. 43 , 137 ) Additional Notes

Scotland

Thousands of second generation Anglo-Saxons, now called "English", were driven into Scotland by the Danish invasion and this resulted in a strong influx of Anglo- Saxon blood in the Scottish people. In the meantime, there was a Norse invasion of the islands and the north and west shores of Scotland and the main Pictish army was destroyed along with their last king, Eoghann. Kenneth Mac Alpin, alleged descendant of forty tribal kings, took this opportunity about 842 to unite the Picts and Scots, forming the small mountain kingdom of Alba (Albainn). After that union the Pictish culture disappeared. It is said that Kenneth murdered seven earls of Dalriada, kinsmen who might have laid a claim to his new throne. (Ref. 137 , 170 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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