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In spite of the intermittent warfare

Rather than a continuous affair, the Hundred Years War was actually a series of intermittent wars
, business had a great emergence, with new tycoons developing in the wool industry. After 1350 so much of the locally grown wool was made into cloth in England that the weavers of Flanders and Italy had to get and use poorer wool from Spain and Ireland. This was also a period of semi-renaissance, with a more general desire for education and a sudden surge of interest in university training. Oxford enlarged and new colleges were started, including Exeter, Oriel and Queens. Balliol had been built in the previous century. (Ref. 49 , 137 )

But England also had its troubles in this century. Early on, heavy rains wrecked harvests and destroyed the vineyards. Then the Black Death (bubonic plague) rolled into England in 1347 and returned again in 1361 and 1368, killing from 1/4 to 112 of the entire population. Because of the decimation of the laboring class, labor trouble subsequently developed. Some ref used to work because of low wages and became bandits. One great revolt of the workers, the Wat Tyler rebellion, was finally put down in 1381 by young King Richard II, after some concessions were made. In 1399 Henry Bolingbroke of Lancaster, son of John of Gaunt, beat Richard in battle, imprisoned him and took over the realm as Henry IV, ending the Plantagenet Dynasty. It should be mentioned that war with the Scots was another ever present threat to England throughout this century and frequently a reality. (Ref. 49 , 8 , 222 )

Of some interest is the further development of the English language at this time. In 1362 Edward III ruled that English, rather than French, should be used for public trials and that was the first decisive defeat for the French language on the islands. Then English replaced Norman French in the schools and became the accepted language of the nation. Richard Rolle, who died of the plague in 1349, was the father of English prose, as he amalgamated Old English, Norman, French and Latin in a written language that had previously only been spoken. Geoffrey Chaucer lived and wrote in this type of English between 1340 and 1400. John Wycliff was partly responsible for the first complete, vernacular English Bible and this at a time when the established church felt that Bible reading by the masses was heresy. The poor priests who followed Wycliff (also Wyclif and Wiclif) were called Lollards and soon it was said that every fourth man in England was a Lollard, in that they adhered to his doctrines, which emphasized the purely spiritual function of the church, with direct access of the individual to God. Advocating a property-less church, Wycliff was opposed to the auricular confession and was in favor of the reduction of the importance of the sacraments. (Ref. 49 , 229 )


As the century opened Scotland remained without a king and suffered continual internal strife and external warfare with England. In early 1306, after a bloody confrontation with John Comyn the Red, Robert Bruce, a descendant of de Brus, was crowned King of Scotland. Immediately King Edward I of England started mobilization of forces to send north against him. Not ready for war, Robert I promptly disappeared into the western islands where, over the next many months, he gathered bands of Islemen, Irish and Gaels to initiate guerrilla warfare. Edward died in 1307 but the battles went on, with Robert making surprisingly successful raids on English strongholds, taking advantage of the weakness of Edward II. A great battle was finally fought at Bannock-burn, just south of Stirling, in 1314, with Robert I and 30,000 Scots defeating 100,000 English. An independent Scottish kingdom resulted with Robert I Bruce the unchallenged monarch. Bruce's daughter, Margaret, married Walter "the steward" and became the founder of the house of Stuart. (Ref. 8 , 38 , 91 , 119 )

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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