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There were a number of Englishmen of this century whose names live on. There was Stephen Langston, one of the great men of the early century, a builder of rights against royal, baronial and at times ecclesiastical pretensions. And there was Hubert de Burgh, a defender of the monarch but a solid champion of the rights of all Englishmen. It was a period of increased papal demands but these were resisted by Robert Grosseteste, scholar, scientist and saint, who anticipated Wycliff. It was the time of Simon de Montfort, who led the baronial revolt and of Roger Bacon, who described the magnetic needle and reading glasses and predicted such things as the steamship and airplane. He is usually given credit for the invention of gun-powder, although there is no concrete evidence of this and we have noted that the Chinese had it in the 11th century. (Ref. 260 )

Cambridge and Oxford universities were founded but all books were in Latin and there were few of these. By the end of the century London was a city of 40,000 people even though England was still 90% rural. There were 8,000,000 sheep in the country, more sheep than people and there was sheep cheese on every table. In spite of this, there were repeated famines throughout the century. Coal was mined at Newcastle for the first time in this period. By the end of the century all Jews had been expelled from England. (Ref. 49 , 57 , 211 , 8 , 170 , 222 )

Scotland

By this time the Scottish nobility had been largely Normanized. All through the first half of the century there was poverty, war with England and war with Norway over the Hebrides, but Alexander III (A.D. 1249) at last established friendly relations with England and gave Scotland a temporary golden age of prosperity and peace. He had become king at the age of eight, with the actual ruler for the first six years being Walter Camyn, Earl of Menteith. Becoming of age, Alexander tried to buy the Hebrides from King Haakon of Norway but was laughed at and then subjected to an attack on the Firth of Clyde by the Norwegian navy. A great storm destroyed most of that fleet and Haakon had to retreat. Three years later, by the Treaty of Perth, Man and the Western Isles were given to Scotland for a monetary arrangement. (Ref. 170 )

At Alexander's death, in the absence of direct male heirs, his granddaughter, Margaret, the Maid of Norway

Alexander had managed to marry his daughter, Margaret, to Eric, son of King Magnus of Norway, and this child was their offspring. (Ref. 38 )
became a child queen in 1286, with six guardians to govern in her name. All but one of these were of Norman descent. In 1290 she left Norway for Scotland, only to die on the way, and this paved the way for a great Scottish civil war over the succession with both Robert Bruce and John Balliol contesting. There was chaos for two years until Edward of England put the Norman John Balliol (formerly de Ballieul) on the throne as a vassal puppet for England. When Edward attempted to completely subdue the Scots, as he had previously successfully done with the Welsh, he met fierce resistance led by William Wallace and Robert Bruce, in multiple, bloody battles. Wallace was eventually hung, drawn, beheaded and quartered in the lovely fashion of the English of that day. After humiliating and slaughtering many Scottish people, Edward I even captured his puppet king, John, in 1296, and for 10 years Scotland had no king. Although under British domination, Scotland still remained, in a sense, free and was actually more disposed toward France, a situation which continued intermittently for some 300 years. What had once been forts or fortified villages now became trading burghs, as a mercantile and agricultural economy replaced the ancient pastoral tribalism. Of incidental interest is the fact that leprosy was rampant in Scotland at that time. (Ref. 49 , 170 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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