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Near the end of the century, Richard I, son of Henry II and more French than English, became king, fought with Philip of France, lived the life of an adventurer and participated in the 3rd Crusade. Returning from this jaunt to the Near East he was taken prisoner by the Holy Roman Emperor and was finally ransomed at a high price. When Richard, called the Lion-Hearted, died in 1199 he was succeeded by his brother John.


There was continued racial and political turmoil in Scotland. After Edgar and Alexander I, David I, another son of Malcolm and Margaret, reigned from 1124 to 1153 and continued the gradual Normanization as an Anglo-Norman aristocracy arose including the Baliols (de Bailleul), Bruces (de Brus), Lindsays and Fitz Alans. These Normans–built timber palisaded towers with fortresses throughout the southern regions and the local people were greatly impressed by the apparent strength of the new rulers. Put to a test by a Celtic revolt from the men of Moray, the Norman horsemen were easy victors and subsequently raided and burned the Moray glens. Battles with English troops also occurred with the loyalties of the new Norman-Scottish aristocracy divided so that the outcomes were only confusing. David founded the city of Edinburgh, giving his friends strips of land on either side of the castle rock. Upon his death there was incessant fighting for years over the succession and stability was not regained until 1165 when David's second son, William I, called "The Lion"

So-called because of the roaring beast displayed on his standard
became king. In 1174 William was captured by the English and for his release, he accepted feudal allegiance to the English crown. (Ref. 170)


Irish-English conflict began in this century when an Irish chieftain, Tiernan O' Rourke, lost his kingdom and wife to a rival and sought aid from Henry II of England. The king sent some Normans from Wales, including Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare, Fitzgerald, Fitz Henry and Carew, among others, and then even went himself in 1171, calling himself "Lord of Ireland". Norman castles arose at Maynooth, Trim, Carrickfirgus and Dublin, but in the end the Irish absorbed the Normans into Irish culture. As a result, however, the

Irish never again quite trusted the English. Belfast was founded in northern Ireland in 1177 as a castle to command a ford across the Lagan River. (Ref. 170,222) Additional Notes


The prince of north Wales, Gruffydd ap Cynan, and his sons worked in the first half of the century to rebuild native Welsh power behind the Snowdonian range. Elsewhere Wales had become the home of many of the Norman nobility and they were the Welch-Norman buccaneers sent by the English king to Ireland when an internal dispute there offered an excuse for intervention. Tintern Abbey was founded in the Wye Valley by Cistercian monks in 1131. (Ref. 222)


Civilization progressed rapidly among these sturdy people. Work was held in honor and great craftsmen developed, particularly in woodworking and shipbuilding. There was wide distribution of the land among a free peasantry. Polygamy was practiced among the wealthy in spite of acknowledgment of Christianity. The great Scandinavian epic poems called the "Edda", with sources from Norway, Iceland and Greenland, appeared at some time between the 8th and this 12 century. Additional Notes

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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