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When Henry VIII had completed his separation from the Roman Church in England he bade the Irish Parliament to acknowledge him also as head of the Irish Church. It accommodated him and the spoils of the monasteries and church properties were given to various Irish chieftains who thereupon became nobles of the English king. The clan system was abolished and Ireland was declared a kingdom, with Henry VIII as its king, in 1541. But when the king died, five years later, the Irish people remained Catholic, a factor which bolstered them in their later struggle for freedom. Irish rebels, including Red Hugh O'Donnell and Hugh O'Neill continued to fight for Irish independence, and the O'Neill badly defeated an English army at Yellow Ford in 1598. Spain even dispatched 4,000 troops to aid in this rebellion, landing at Kinsdale on the southern coast, but they were immediately evicted by English troops. In this century Ireland became a major ex- porter of salted butter and salt beef, the latter being used on shipboard and as food for the poor and the slaves. Salt beef even became a standard winter dish in England. (Ref. 110 , 260 )


There had been peace between England and Wales since the ascension of the Welsh Tydder (Tudor) King Henry VII and in 1536 Wales became officially incorporated into the English nation.


"The Baltic is a vast, almost land-locked, frequently ice-bound area of water covering over 166,000 square miles. In early modern times it provided the great bulk of the timber, tar, pitch, hemp and flax for the ships with which England, Holland, France, Spain and Portugal were building their world trading empires; also much of the grain needed to insure the rest of the continent against poor harvests, and the copper for its everyday money."

This quotation taken from The Times Atlas of World History (Ref. 8 ), page 188
Furthermore, the Baltic and the adjacent Gulf of Finland were almost completely under the control of Scandinavians during the 16th century. In the first quarter, all Scandinavia was, furthermore, under one king, in the Union of Calmar. Finland was a part of Sweden and all were subservient to King Hans (Dane) as the century opened. After Hans' defeat by the Frisians in 1500 the various segments of Scandinavia gradually began to separate again. At the end of the century all Scandinavia was still relatively sparsely settled, with only about 1.5 inhabitants to the square kilometer (compared to 40 in the Netherlands, for example) and remained only on the margin of European life. (Ref. 260 )


Norway continued the docile partner of Denmark throughout the remainder of the century. The country did become an exporter of copper to Europe proper. (Ref. 292 )

Sweden (see map in section on sweden in 17th century)

In 1501, after King Hans had been defeated in -Frisia, the Union of Calmar was not officially dissolved, but it was simply "not in force" and Sten Sture was again considered Regent of Sweden. When Sten threw the Archbishop of Sweden into prison in 1520, Christian II, successor to Hans, took an army to Sweden and the Danish army, backed by some Swedish nobles, took the whole country by force. In Stortorv Square in Stockholm, after a celebration, Christian II had his soldiers murder 82 nobles of Sweden as heretics. A son of one of those so killed in this "Stockholm Bloodbath" soon thereafter got help from the peasants to assemble an army and within two years had all of Sweden under his control. This man, Gustavus Eriksson, was then crowned King of Sweden as Gustav Vasa, in 1523 and the Union of Calmar truly ended. During his reign a financial crisis developed and when the pope replied to the king's appeal for funds only in a very meager way, the king began to favor the Protestants. He commissioned a translation of the Bible into Swedish and this helped not only to transform the national religion but to promote the language itself. As in England, the king began to take over church property for his treasury and insisted that the Diet, or National Assembly, cut out the pope, eliminate confessions and give all the church property to the crown. This was another triumph of the state over the church. Gustav I Vasa was the father of modern Sweden. During his reign iron mines were expanded, trade increased. copper exported and soon there was great prosperity. Even the peasants manufactured iron, but only during the rise of the spring waters when water power was available to help in the operation of the furnaces. (Ref. 260 ) With all of this, we must not lose sight of the fact that the vast expanses of Sweden were still half-empty, with only a few settlements in a vast territory. Traveling merchants distributed horse shoes, nails, pins and religious books, among other things. (Ref. 292 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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