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Experimental procedure

CAUTION WEAR EYE PROTECTION!

 

CAUTION - Concentrated sulfuric acid will burn and stain the skin as well as damage clothing. In case of skin or clothing contact, wash the area immediately with large amounts of water.

Synthesis of esters

  • Place approximately 2 g (or 2 mL if the substance is a liquid) of the organic acid and 2 mL of the alcohol in a large test tube.
  • Add 5 - 7 drops of concentrated (18 M) sulfuric acid, mix the solution well with a glass stirring rod and then place the test tube in a hot water bath (largest beaker in your drawer) (~ 80°C) for 5 - 10 minutes.
  • Remove the test tube from the hot water bath and cautiously pour the mixture into about 15 mL of saturated sodium bicarbonate contained in a small beaker. The sodium bicarbonate will destroy any unreacted acid.
  • Observe the aroma produced from each of the following esterification reactions. Write the structure of the esters produced, and the balanced equations for the esterification and the acid/sodium bicarbonate reactions:

 

Complete the following reactions using the procedure above and record your observations.

 

 (1) C 7 H 6 O 3 + CH 3 OH size 12{C rSub { size 8{7} } H rSub { size 8{6} } O rSub { size 8{3} } + ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } ital "OH" rightarrow } {}

 salicylic acid + methyl alcohol

 (2) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH + CH 3 COOH size 12{ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } ital "CH""" lSub { size 8{2} } ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } ital "OH"+ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } ital "COOH" rightarrow } {}

1 - octanol + glacial acetic acid

 (3) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH + CH 3 COOH size 12{ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } ital "CH""" lSub { size 8{2} } ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } ital "OH"+ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } ital "COOH" rightarrow } {}

 amyl alcohol + glacial acetic acid

(4) C 2 H 5 OH + CH 3 COOH size 12{C rSub { size 8{2} } H"" lSub { size 8{5} } ital "OH"+ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } ital "COOH" rightarrow } {}

ethanol + acetic acid

 

Oxidation of an alcohol with acidified potassium dichromate(vi) solution

  • Add 10 drops of dilute sulfuric acid (6M) and 5 drops of potassium dichromate(VI) solution (0.01M) to 5 drops of ethanol. The oxidising agent is added slowly to the alcohol so that the temperature is kept below that of the alcohol and above that of the carbonyl compound. (Carbonyl compounds are more volatile than the corresponding alcohols). Usually the alcohol is in excess of the oxidant and the aldehyde is distilled off to avoid further oxidation.
  • Note the color and smell cautiously (Royal Wave).
  • Warm the mixture and smell cautiously (Royal Wave).
  • Repeat the experiment using first methanol and then propan-2-ol in place of ethanol.

 

Describe what happens and explain the color changes.

What conditions and techniques would favour the oxidation of ethanol to

a. ethanal rather than ethanoic acid.

b. ethanoic acid rather than ethanal?

Oxidation of an alcohol with acidified potassium permanganate (vii) solution

  • Add 10 drops of dilute sulfuric acid and 5 drops of potassium permanganate (VII) solution (0.01M) to 5 drops of ethanol. Note the color and smell cautiously.
  • Warm the mixture and smell cautiously (Royal Wave).
  • Repeat the experiment using first methanol and then propan-2-ol in place of ethanol.
  • Take the pH of your final mixture using Universal indicator paper

 Describe what happens and explain the color changes.

What is your final product?

Saponification of a vegetable oil

CAUTION - Sodium hydroxide is a very caustic material that can cause severe skin burns. Eye burns caused by sodium hydroxide are progressive: what at first appears to be a minor irritation can develop into a severe injury unless the chemical is completely flushed from the eye. If sodium hydroxide comes in contact with the eye, flush the eye with running water continuously for at least 20 minutes. Notify your TA immediately. If sodium hydroxide is spilled on some other parts of the body, flush the affected area with running water continuously for at least 2-3 minutes. Notify your TA immediately.

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
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Source:  OpenStax, Honors chemistry lab fall. OpenStax CNX. Nov 15, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10456/1.16
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