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Sample set c

Estimate the product: 73 46 size 12{"73 " cdot " 46"} {} .

Notice that 73 is near 70, one nonzero digit and that 46 is near 50. one nonzero digit

The product can be estimated by 70 50 = 3,500 size 12{"70 " cdot " 50 "=" 3,500"} {} . (Recall that to multiply numbers ending in zeros, we multiply the nonzero digits and affix to this product the total number of ending zeros in the factors. See [link] for a review of this technique.)

Thus, 73 46 size 12{"73 " cdot " 46"} {} is about 3,500. In fact, 73 46 = 3,358 size 12{"73 " cdot " 46 "=" 3,358"} {} .

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Estimate the product: 87 4,316 size 12{"87 " cdot " 4,316"} {} .

Notice that 87 is close to 90, one nonzero digit and that 4,316 is close to 4,000. one nonzero digit

The product can be estimated by 90 4,000 = 360,000 size 12{"90 " cdot " 4,000 "=" 360,000"} {} .

Thus, 87 4,316 size 12{"87 " cdot " 4,316"} {} is about 360,000. In fact, 87 4,316 = 375,492 size 12{"87 " cdot " 4,316 "=" 375,492"} {} .

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Practice set c

Estimate the product: 31 87 size 12{"31 " cdot " 87"} {} .

31 87 : 30 90 . About 2,700. In fact, 2,697.

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Estimate the product: 18 42 size 12{"18 " cdot " 42"} {} .

18 42 : 20 40 . About 800. In fact, 756.

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Estimate the product: 16 94 size 12{"16 " cdot " 94"} {} .

16 94 : 15 100 . About 1,500. In fact, 1,504.

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Sample set d

Estimate the quotient: 153 ÷ 17 size 12{"153 " div " 17"} {} .

Notice that 153 is close to 150, two nonzero digits and that 17 is close to 15. two nonzero digits

The quotient can be estimated by 150 ÷ 15 = 10 size 12{"150 " div " 15 "=" 10"} {} .

Thus, 153 ÷ 17 size 12{"153 " div " 17"} {} is about 10. In fact, 153 ÷ 17 = 9 size 12{"153 " div " 17 "=" 9"} {} .

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Estimate the quotient: 742,000 ÷ 2,400 size 12{"742,000 " div " 2,400"} {} .

Notice that 742,000 is close to 700,000 one nonzero digit , and that 2,400 is close to 2,000. one nonzero digit

The quotient can be estimated by 700,000 ÷ 2,000 = 350 size 12{"700,000 " div " 2,000 "=" 350"} {} .

Thus, 742,000 ÷ 2,400 size 12{"742,000 " div " 2,400"} {} is about 350. In fact, 742,000 ÷ 2,400 = 309 . 1 6 ¯ size 12{"742,000 " div " 2,400 "=" 309" "." 1 {overline {6}} } {} .

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Practice set d

Estimate the quotient: 221 ÷ 18 size 12{"221 " div " 18"} {} .

221 ÷ 18 : 200 ÷ 20 . About 10. In fact, 12.27.

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Estimate the quotient: 4,079 ÷ 381 size 12{"4,079 " div " 381"} {} .

4,079 ÷ 381 : 4,000 ÷ 400 . About 10. In fact, 10.70603675...

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Estimate the quotient: 609,000 ÷ 16,000 size 12{"609,000 " div " 16,000"} {} .

609,000 ÷ 16,000 : 600,000 ÷ 15,000 . About 40. In fact, 38.0625.

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Sample set e

Estimate the sum: 53 . 82 + 41 . 6 size 12{"53" "." "82 "+" 41" "." 6} {} .

Notice that 53.82 is close to 54, two nonzero digits and that 41.6 is close to 42. two nonzero digits

The sum can be estimated by 54 + 42 = 96 size 12{"54 "+" 42 "=" 96"} {} .

Thus, 53 . 82 + 41 . 6 size 12{"53" "." "82 "+" 41" "." 6} {} is about 96. In fact, 53 . 82 + 41 . 6 = 95 . 42 size 12{"53" "." "82 "+" 41" "." "6 "=" 95" "." "42"} {} .

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Practice set e

Estimate the sum: 61 . 02 + 26 . 8 size 12{"61" "." "02 "+" 26" "." 8} {} .

61.02 + 26.8 : 61 + 27 . About 88. In fact, 87.82.

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Estimate the sum: 109 . 12 + 137 . 88 size 12{"109" "." "12 "+" 137" "." "88"} {} .

109.12 + 137.88 : 110 + 138 . About 248. In fact, 247. We could have estimated 137.88 with 140. Then 110 + 140 is an easy mental addition. We would conclude then that 109.12 + 137.88 is about 250.

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Sample set f

Estimate the product: ( 31 . 28 ) ( 14 . 2 ) size 12{ \( "31" "." "28" \) \( "14" "." 2 \) } {} .

Notice that 31.28 is close to 30, one nonzero digit and that 14.2 is close to 15. two nonzero digits

The product can be estimated by 30 15 = 450 size 12{"30 " cdot " 15 "=" 450"} {} . ( 3 15 = 45 size 12{"3 " cdot " 15 "=" 45"} {} , then affix one zero.)

Thus, ( 31 . 28 ) ( 14 . 2 ) size 12{ \( "31" "." "28" \) \( "14" "." 2 \) } {} is about 450. In fact, ( 31 . 28 ) ( 14 . 2 ) = 444 . 176 size 12{ \( "31" "." "28" \) \( "14" "." 2 \) =" 444" "." "176"} {} .

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Estimate 21% of 5.42.

Notice that 21% = . 21 size 12{"21% "= "." "21"} {} as a decimal, and that .21 is close to .2. one nonzero digit

Notice also that 5.42 is close to 5. one nonzero digit

Then, 21% of 5.42 can be estimated by ( . 2 ) ( 5 ) = 1 size 12{ \( "." 2 \) \( 5 \) =" 1"} {} .

Thus, 21% of 5.42 is about 1. In fact, 21% of 5.42 is 1.1382.

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Practice set f

Estimate the product: ( 47 . 8 ) ( 21 . 1 ) size 12{ \( "47" "." 8 \) \( "21" "." 1 \) } {} .

( 47.8 ) ( 21.1 ) : ( 50 ) ( 20 ) . About 1,000. In fact, 1,008.58.

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Estimate 32% of 14.88.

32% of 14.88 : ( .3 ) ( 15 ) . About 4.5. In fact, 4.7616.

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Exercises

Estimate each calculation using the method of rounding. After you have made an estimate, find the exact value and compare this to the estimated result to see if your estimated value is reasonable. Results may vary.

1, 402 + 2, 198 size 12{1,"402"+2,"198"} {}

about 3,600; in fact 3,600

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3,481 + 4,216 size 12{"3,481"+"4,216"} {}

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921 + 796 size 12{"921"+"796"} {}

about 1,700; in fact 1,717

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611 + 806 size 12{"611"+"806"} {}

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4, 681 + 9, 325 size 12{4,"681"+9,"325"} {}

about 14,000; in fact 14,006

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6, 476 + 7, 814 size 12{6,"476"+7,"814"} {}

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7, 805 4, 266 size 12{7,"805"-4,"266"} {}

about 3,500; in fact 3,539

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8, 427 5, 342 size 12{8,"427"-5,"342"} {}

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14 , 106 8, 412 size 12{"14","106"-8,"412"} {}

about 5,700; in fact 5,694

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26 , 486 18 , 931 size 12{"26","486"-"18","931"} {}

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32 53 size 12{"32" cdot "53"} {}

about 1,500; in fact 1,696

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67 42 size 12{"67" cdot "42"} {}

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628 891 size 12{"628" cdot "891"} {}

about 540,000; in fact 559,548

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426 741 size 12{"426" cdot "741"} {}

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18 , 012 32 , 416 size 12{"18","012" cdot "32","416"} {}

about 583,200,000; in fact 583,876,992

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22 , 481 51 , 076 size 12{"22","481" cdot "51","076"} {}

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287 ÷ 19 size 12{"287"÷"19"} {}

about 15; in fact 15.11

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884 ÷ 33 size 12{"884"÷"33"} {}

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1, 254 ÷ 57 size 12{1,"254"÷"57"} {}

about 20; in fact 22

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2, 189 ÷ 42 size 12{2,"189"÷"42"} {}

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8, 092 ÷ 239 size 12{8,"092"÷"239"} {}

about 33; in fact 33.86

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2, 688 ÷ 48 size 12{2,"688"÷"48"} {}

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72 . 14 + 21 . 08 size 12{"72" "." "14"+"21" "." "08"} {}

about 93.2; in fact 93.22

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43 . 016 + 47 . 58 size 12{"43" "." "016"+"47" "." "58"} {}

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96 . 53 26 . 91 size 12{"96" "." "53"-"26" "." "91"} {}

about 70; in fact 69.62

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115 . 0012 25 . 018 size 12{"115" "." "0012"-"25" "." "018"} {}

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206 . 19 + 142 . 38 size 12{"206" "." "19"+"142" "." "38"} {}

about 348.6; in fact 348.57

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592 . 131 + 211 . 6 size 12{"592" "." "131"+"211" "." 6} {}

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32 . 12 48 . 7 size 12{ left ("32" "." "12" right ) left ("48" "." 7 right )} {}

about 1,568.0; in fact 1,564.244

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87 . 013 21 . 07 size 12{ left ("87" "." "013" right ) left ("21" "." "07" right )} {}

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3 . 003 16 . 52 size 12{ left (3 "." "003" right ) left ("16" "." "52" right )} {}

about 49.5; in fact 49.60956

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6 . 032 14 . 091 size 12{ left (6 "." "032" right ) left ("14" "." "091" right )} {}

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114 . 06 384 . 3 size 12{ left ("114" "." "06" right ) left ("384" "." 3 right )} {}

about 43,776; in fact 43,833.258

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5, 137 . 118 263 . 56 size 12{ left (5,"137" "." "118" right ) left ("263" "." "56" right )} {}

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6 . 92 0 . 88 size 12{ left (6 "." "92" right ) left (0 "." "88" right )} {}

about 6.21; in fact 6.0896

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83 . 04 1 . 03 size 12{ left ("83" "." "04" right ) left (1 "." "03" right )} {}

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17 . 31 . 003 size 12{ left ("17" "." "31" right ) left ( "." "003" right )} {}

about 0.0519; in fact 0.05193

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14 . 016 . 016 size 12{ left ("14" "." "016" right ) left ( "." "016" right )} {}

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93 % of   7 . 01 size 12{"93""% of "7 "." "01"} {}

about 6.3; in fact 6.5193

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32% of 15.3

about 4.5; in fact 4.896

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18% of 4.118

about 0.8; in fact 0.74124

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2% of .0039

about 0.00008; in fact 0.000078

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Exercises for review

( [link] ) Find the difference: 7 10 5 16 . size 12{ { {7} over {"10"} } - { {5} over {"16"} } "." } {}

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( [link] ) Find the value 6 1 4 6 + 1 4 . size 12{ { {6- { {1} over {4} } } over {6+ { {1} over {4} } } } "." } {}

23 25 size 12{ { {"23"} over {"25"} } } {}

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( [link] ) Convert the complex decimal 1 . 11 1 4 size 12{1 "." "11" { {1} over {4} } } {} to a decimal.

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( [link] ) A woman 5 foot tall casts an 8-foot shadow at a particular time of the day. How tall is a tree that casts a 96-foot shadow at the same time of the day?

60 feet tall

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( [link] ) 11.62 is 83% of what number?

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
7hours 36 min - 4hours 50 min
Tanis Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Fundamentals of mathematics. OpenStax CNX. Aug 18, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10615/1.4
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