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Sample 250-word summary

"Sleep deprivation does not induce sister chromatid exchange in humans," a 1996 article in Mutation Research by Bjorn and others, confirms that using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) to measure genotoxic exposures in the workplace produces results within the range of normal daily variation for men and women who work night shifts as well as for ordinary daytime workers. A preliminary study by Bamezai and Kumar in 1992 reported dramatic increases of SCE after sleep deprivation. If confirmed, these results would have raised questions about whether SCE levels might be confounded when occupational medicine studies involved night shift workers.

Bjorn and his colleagues compared the SCE levels of 20 persons (10 men, 10 women). Individual baselines of SCE were estimated by the mean of the SCE per metaphase of two subsequent days (control period) and compared to that of a test period two weeks later after 24 hours without sleep. Daily questionnaires about sleep and dietary habits were used to eliminate possible influence of other factors. The rates differed slightly, but the differences were not statistically significant. Differences in conditions of cell cultures might explain differences in the two studies. Previous genotoxic exposures were assumed not to have elevated the mean baseline of individuals. Bjorn and colleagues concluded that the effect of sleep deprivation on SCE, if there is one, would be in the range of normal day-to-day variance, and does not have to be taken into account when SCE is used for genotoxic monitoring at workplaces.

Standards for citations and references

Each assignment may have its own requirements for citations and bibliography. This section details the requirements for Introductory Biology at Rice University, which reflect the conventions of many bioscience journals.

References to works by three or more authors in the text should be abbreviated ( Able et al 1986 ). When different groups of authors with the same first author and date occur, they should be cited thus ( Able, Baker&Charles 1986; Able, David&Edwards 1986 ).

The references in the bibliography should be in alphabetical order with the journal name unabbreviated. The format for papers, entire books and chapters in books is as follows:

  • Boutin, C.&Harper, J. L (1991) A comparative study of the population dynamics of five species of Veronica in natural habitats. Journal of Ecology , 79, 199-221.
  • Clarke, N.A. (1983) The ecology of dunlin (Calidris alpina 1.) wintering on the Severn estuary . PhD thesis. University of Edinburgh.
  • Pimm, S.L. (1982) Food Webs. Chapman and Hall, London.
  • Sibly, R.M. (1981) Strategies of digestion and defecation. Physiological Ecology (eds C. R. Townsend&P. Calow), pp 109-139. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.


When you give written feedback on student work, be sure to say something that specifically addresses that student paper . Avoid trite stock phrases ("interesting topic!," "nice writing," etc.) or automatic responses that offer little insight regarding improving writing ("look at second source"). To address problematic writing specifically, write notes in the margin. Margin notes are effective for engaging specifics of a paper, and show the student that his or her paper is actually being read by a human.

Read and analyze the instructor’s assignment carefully before you begin grading. Make sure the student has chosen an article from the allowed list of journals, met the format requirements, etc. If you have an assessment sheet, make sure you understand the criteria and how points are to be awarded. Bring any questions or concerns to the course instructor. Quality written feedback that supports the numerical grading will strengthen the relationship between student and writing mentor.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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