<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Types of synovial joints

Synovial joints are further classified into six different categories on the basis of the shape and structure of the joint. The shape of the joint affects the type of movement permitted by the joint ( [link] ). These joints can be described as planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, or ball-and-socket joints.

 Illustration shows joints of the body. The neck is a pivot joint that allows rotation. The hip is a ball-and-socket joint that allows a swiveling movement. The elbow is a hinge joint that allows movement in one direction. The wrist has a saddle joint to allow back-and forth-movement, and a condyloid joint to allow up-and-down movement. The tarsals of the foot have a plane joint that allows back-and-forth movement.
Different types of joints allow different types of movement. Planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket are all types of synovial joints.

Planar joints

Planar joints have bones with articulating surfaces that are flat or slightly curved faces. These joints allow for gliding movements, and so the joints are sometimes referred to as gliding joints. The range of motion is limited in these joints and does not involve rotation. Planar joints are found in the carpal bones in the hand and the tarsal bones of the foot, as well as between vertebrae ( [link] ).

Photo shows a human hand skeleton. The radius and ulna of the forearm connect to several small, knobby bones in the wrist called carpals. Carpals, in turn, connect to bones in the wrist.
The joints of the carpal bones in the wrist are examples of planar joints. (credit: modification of work by Brian C. Goss)

Hinge joints

In hinge joints , the slightly rounded end of one bone fits into the slightly hollow end of the other bone. In this way, one bone moves while the other remains stationary, like the hinge of a door. The elbow is an example of a hinge joint. The knee is sometimes classified as a modified hinge joint ( [link] ).

Photo shows the skeleton of a human arm. The ulna of the lower arm fits in the groove of the humerus, forming the hinge-like elbow joint.
The elbow joint, where the radius articulates with the humerus, is an example of a hinge joint. (credit: modification of work by Brian C. Goss)

Pivot joints

Pivot joints consist of the rounded end of one bone fitting into a ring formed by the other bone. This structure allows rotational movement, as the rounded bone moves around its own axis. An example of a pivot joint is the joint of the first and second vertebrae of the neck that allows the head to move back and forth ( [link] ). The joint of the wrist that allows the palm of the hand to be turned up and down is also a pivot joint.

Illustration shows a human skull twisting back and forth on the neck in a pivot-like motion.
The joint in the neck that allows the head to move back and forth is an example of a pivot joint.

Condyloid joints

Condyloid joints consist of an oval-shaped end of one bone fitting into a similarly oval-shaped hollow of another bone ( [link] ). This is also sometimes called an ellipsoidal joint. This type of joint allows angular movement along two axes, as seen in the joints of the wrist and fingers, which can move both side to side and up and down.

Illustration shows the metacarpophalangeal joint that joins the metacarpal of the hand to a finger.
The metacarpophalangeal joints in the finger are examples of condyloid joints. (credit: modification of work by Gray's Anatomy)

Saddle joints

Saddle joints are so named because the ends of each bone resemble a saddle, with concave and convex portions that fit together. Saddle joints allow angular movements similar to condyloid joints but with a greater range of motion. An example of a saddle joint is the thumb joint, which can move back and forth and up and down, but more freely than the wrist or fingers ( [link] ).

Photo shows the carpometacarpal joint that connects the metacarpal of the thumb to the trapezium of the wrist. Each bone is saddle-shaped at the end.
The carpometacarpal joints in the thumb are examples of saddle joints. (credit: modification of work by Brian C. Goss)

Ball-and-socket joints

Ball-and-socket joints possess a rounded, ball-like end of one bone fitting into a cuplike socket of another bone. This organization allows the greatest range of motion, as all movement types are possible in all directions. Examples of ball-and-socket joints are the shoulder and hip joints ( [link] ).

Questions & Answers

What is venation
Mohamed Reply
what is evolution
Anthony Reply
why are you insulting us my niggar?
Emmanuelfray Reply
what is deglutition
Nalumansi Reply
what is biology
Sierrah Reply
biology is a type of science that studies living things
xjuicy_editzz
viruses are composed of what
Daniel Reply
what are some disease caused by virus
Daniel
what are some disease caused by virus
Daniel
what are some disease caused by virus
Daniel
Ebola
Alhassan
Ebola,rabies,polio,hepatitis and small pox
Magoba
Corona (viral disease)
Musoke
viruses kinda in a sense not "living" what mean that a virus molecule that attaches to living organisms cells to destroy/kill them. so to answer your question they are composed/made up of molecules (please note that I am not 100% sure, please feel free to correct me :] )
xjuicy_editzz
what is meiosis
Koosono
what is evolution?
Emmanuelfray
@koosono meiosis is the fusion of gametes (sex cell) to from a zygote and it occurs sexually
xjuicy_editzz
what is the use of biology
Tarkaa Reply
To widen our reasoning abilities about the past and the present events in biology and life at large
Musoke
To understand our biography
Musoke
to study living things
Narh
Among all these which one is the major difference between platyhelminthes and coelenterates? 1. are multicellular 2. have developed a mesoderm 3. reproduce sexually 4. reproduce asexually
Habeeb Reply
what is evolution?
Emmanuelfray Reply
how can you define biology in terms of a burning fire in the bush?
Emmanuelfray
what is a cell
Kagelelo Reply
cell is a functional and unit of life
Sarita
it is the building block n basic unit of life
Narh
describe the process of testing the presence of starch in a leaf
Estel Reply
give me somes of examples.
Manu Reply
give example of what.
Ante
example of what
Elizabeth
what are chromosomes?
Ante
what is Biology
Darkoa
Biology is the study of animals and plants on their characters and death
Okol
No biology is the study of life (living thing's)
Achibiri
Chromosomes refers to one of the small parts like threads in the NUCLEI (central part )of plants and animals cell that carry the GENES
Estel
Yeah okol....Bio-means life and -logy means study/knowledge
Estel
Ecology is the study of
Abdul Reply
Ecology is the study of the interaction of organism in each other and their environment.
Ante
Ecology is the study of the interaction of organism in each other and their environment
Everlove
oh yes!!! exactly
Great
thank much
Ante
what is biome?
Ante
a geographical area with dinstic species
Francis
thanks much it very helpful
Ante
my pleasure
Francis
characteristics of living things
Jane Reply
excretion, movement, sensitivity, reproduction,growth, respiration,nutrition
Estel
what are there function
Ante
what are their function
Ante
what is the two type of reproduction?
Ante
sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction
Abdul
what are their function
Manu
Hi
Olufunmilokun
What is light independent reaction
Benjamin Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now




Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Biology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask