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Russia

Czar Alexander I (1801-1825), although implicated in the murder of his father Paul, started rule with a true humanitarian ideology and a desire to liberate his serfs and establish a constitutional government, but the mechanics of that were difficult and blocked by his ministers and senate. Before anything could be initiated, he became entangled in European politics and diplomacy, first as an all y of France and then as an enemy. As Napoleon invaded Poland, Russia retreated but then hostilities ceased temporarily with the Treaty of Tilsit, where there was much exchange of territory and Russia gained Finland from Sweden. Of course, the Russian army in Finland had helped to promote that. Napoleon sought to keep Russia happy and thus free his hand in the west against England. But apparently changing his mind by June, 1812, Napoleon again started for Russia with 600,000 men. As we have noted in an earlier section, Bonaparte's army reached an evacuated Moscow, started to freeze and starve and finally retreated. The Russians cut them down until only 1/5 of the French army remained alive. McNeill (279) surmises that the Russian troops were supplied by barge and river boats in summer and sleighs in winter, allowing great weights to be moved easily and relatively rapidly, in contrast to the French land carts. It has been estimated that there were about 400,000 burlake , or hauliers, who pulled or propelled boats along the Volga in about 1815. (Ref. 292 ) Czar Alexander I followed his troops into central Europe and then Paris, as Napoleon abdicated. The czar was then influential in the final peace at Vienna and the subsequent formation of the Holy Alliance of European monarchs.

Under Czar Nicholas I (1825-55) Russia aggressively added Persian Armenia to its empire and tried to take over the Balkans, but was thwarted there by the British. The great Russian army was used during Nicholas' reign on many diverse fronts; in central Asia (1839-43 and 1847-53); in the Caucasus (1829-64); against Persia and Turkey (1826-29); against Polish rebels 1830-311 and 1863); and against Magyar revolts in 1849. It is of interest that as early as the 1830s the astute Alexis de Tocqueville (Ref. 217 ) recognized that even then the two greatest nations in the world were Russia and the United States, although the former centered all the authority of society in a single arm while the latter relied on the strength and common sense of the people. The population of Russia increased proportionately more rapidly in the early century than any other country in the world.

Britain felt that Turkey must be kept independent of Russia and in 1841 an International Straits Convention closed the Bosphorus to Russian warships. In spite of that, in 1851 Russians invaded Turkey's Danubian provinces and in 1853 sank the Turkish fleet, gaining control of the Black Sea. In reprisal, France and Britain declared war on Russia in 1854 and invaded the Crimea. In this Crimean War the greatest battle took place at Sevastopol, where Russia sank her antiquated navy to block the bay, putting the ships' guns on the shore. But the western powers finally took the great naval base, anyway, humiliating Russia. Long supply lines

About 125,000 peasant carts were requisitioned but forage was almost non-existent for the draft animals and the ulimate payloads for the army were far from adequate. (Ref. 279 )
, poor administration, and obsolete ammunition, along with typhus fever and other diseases contributed to the eventual f all of the Russians, although the strategy of the British had also been appalling. This war ended the dominant role of Russia in southeast Europe. The scandalous condition of the troops and the dead, sick and wounded of both sides, as depicted by the first war correspondents, led to the work of Florence Nightingale and this was perhaps the most positive result of the war. (Ref. 38 ) The Peace of Paris of 1856 let Sevastopol stay in Russian hands, but the mouth of the Danube became international and Russia was barred from having a Black Sea navy. The treaty was a futile effort to settle the "Near Eastern Question". During the same period, Russia attempted periodically to take the Caucasus and was opposed with great fanaticism by the Islamic leader Shamil. Nevertheless, that area was under complete Russian control by 1864.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
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Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
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Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
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Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
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research.net
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sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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Loga
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Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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