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Czar Alexander I (1801-1825), although implicated in the murder of his father Paul, started rule with a true humanitarian ideology and a desire to liberate his serfs and establish a constitutional government, but the mechanics of that were difficult and blocked by his ministers and senate. Before anything could be initiated, he became entangled in European politics and diplomacy, first as an all y of France and then as an enemy. As Napoleon invaded Poland, Russia retreated but then hostilities ceased temporarily with the Treaty of Tilsit, where there was much exchange of territory and Russia gained Finland from Sweden. Of course, the Russian army in Finland had helped to promote that. Napoleon sought to keep Russia happy and thus free his hand in the west against England. But apparently changing his mind by June, 1812, Napoleon again started for Russia with 600,000 men. As we have noted in an earlier section, Bonaparte's army reached an evacuated Moscow, started to freeze and starve and finally retreated. The Russians cut them down until only 1/5 of the French army remained alive. McNeill (279) surmises that the Russian troops were supplied by barge and river boats in summer and sleighs in winter, allowing great weights to be moved easily and relatively rapidly, in contrast to the French land carts. It has been estimated that there were about 400,000 burlake , or hauliers, who pulled or propelled boats along the Volga in about 1815. (Ref. 292 ) Czar Alexander I followed his troops into central Europe and then Paris, as Napoleon abdicated. The czar was then influential in the final peace at Vienna and the subsequent formation of the Holy Alliance of European monarchs.

Under Czar Nicholas I (1825-55) Russia aggressively added Persian Armenia to its empire and tried to take over the Balkans, but was thwarted there by the British. The great Russian army was used during Nicholas' reign on many diverse fronts; in central Asia (1839-43 and 1847-53); in the Caucasus (1829-64); against Persia and Turkey (1826-29); against Polish rebels 1830-311 and 1863); and against Magyar revolts in 1849. It is of interest that as early as the 1830s the astute Alexis de Tocqueville (Ref. 217 ) recognized that even then the two greatest nations in the world were Russia and the United States, although the former centered all the authority of society in a single arm while the latter relied on the strength and common sense of the people. The population of Russia increased proportionately more rapidly in the early century than any other country in the world.

Britain felt that Turkey must be kept independent of Russia and in 1841 an International Straits Convention closed the Bosphorus to Russian warships. In spite of that, in 1851 Russians invaded Turkey's Danubian provinces and in 1853 sank the Turkish fleet, gaining control of the Black Sea. In reprisal, France and Britain declared war on Russia in 1854 and invaded the Crimea. In this Crimean War the greatest battle took place at Sevastopol, where Russia sank her antiquated navy to block the bay, putting the ships' guns on the shore. But the western powers finally took the great naval base, anyway, humiliating Russia. Long supply lines

About 125,000 peasant carts were requisitioned but forage was almost non-existent for the draft animals and the ulimate payloads for the army were far from adequate. (Ref. 279 )
, poor administration, and obsolete ammunition, along with typhus fever and other diseases contributed to the eventual f all of the Russians, although the strategy of the British had also been appalling. This war ended the dominant role of Russia in southeast Europe. The scandalous condition of the troops and the dead, sick and wounded of both sides, as depicted by the first war correspondents, led to the work of Florence Nightingale and this was perhaps the most positive result of the war. (Ref. 38 ) The Peace of Paris of 1856 let Sevastopol stay in Russian hands, but the mouth of the Danube became international and Russia was barred from having a Black Sea navy. The treaty was a futile effort to settle the "Near Eastern Question". During the same period, Russia attempted periodically to take the Caucasus and was opposed with great fanaticism by the Islamic leader Shamil. Nevertheless, that area was under complete Russian control by 1864.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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