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There were still some nine separate principalities in Poland under four dukedoms.

In 1241 the northern prong of the invading Mongols defeated both the Poles and the Teutonic Knights. The Mongols had sent only two tumens to take Lithuania and Poland with an aim to draw the northern European armies away from Hungary, but the Polish armies, under Vladimir, the Palatine of Sandomir and Cracow were no match for them and Cracow was abandoned on their approach and burned by the invaders. King Boleslav fled with his family and treasures to Hungary. The Mongol generals, Baidar and Kadan, met at Breslau, the capital of Silesia, where the citizens had already burned their own city and retired into a citadel. A final battle developed at Liegnitz (now known as Legnica) where the invaders met a 25,000 man army assembled by Henry of Silesia, many untrained and ill-equipped, contingents from Oppeln and Moravia, similarly poorly prepared, conscripts from Great Poland and detachments of the Knights Templar from France and the Hospitallers. The Mongols won and after the battle they cut an ear from each dead enemy's body and sent nine large sacks of them to General Batu, as a present. Although some European historians refer to Liegnitz as a Polish victory, this is untrue and due to misunderstandings encountered in translating oriental characters and reports. (Ref. 27 )

After the invasion and the Mongol withdrawal the Germans immigrated into Poland, giving a strong admixture of the German language, laws and blood. At the same time Poland welcomed thousands of Jews fleeing from pogroms in Germany. At the end of the century Poland united with Bohemia to form a single country- under King Wenceslas II of Bohemia.


"The Mongol invasion was perhaps the most traumatic event in Russian history."

Quotation from Times Atlas of World History, (Ref. 8 ), page 114
After smashing the central Asian Khwarizm, the first wave of Mongols, led by generals Jebe
Another authority, Lamb (Ref. 87 ), spells this name "Chepe")
and Subedei, sent a corps to reconnoiter southern Russia in 1221, delivering crushing defeats to Georgians, Alans, Cumans and south Russian princes. (Ref. 137 ) This was not easily done, however. The main Mongol force crossed the Caucasus mountains in the winter with some difficulty and descended the north slope to find a Cuman army of 50,000 men, led by the sons of Khan Kotian, awaiting them. With the Cumans were Bulgars, Khazars and Alans (descendants of the Scythians). Bribed by the wily Mongols with gold and horses, the Cumans retreated in the night, leaving their allies to be slaughtered by the Asians. The latter then simply followed the Cumans and massacred them just north of the Sea of Azov, in 1222. (Ref. 8 , 27 ) While Subedei was defeating those Cumans, Jebe rode west to the Don River. It is of interest that while on the shores of the Sea of Azov, Subedei came across some Venetians, who discovered that the Mongols rode with fine silk under their light weight armor and carried physicians, diplomats and interpreters with them and had an Armenian bishop and merchants who were already printing cheap Bibles and selling them to the locals. All this impressed the Venetians who then offered themselves as spies in the west. To seal this new alliance, Subedei raized the Genoese trading station at Sudak.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
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for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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