<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

The screen output The code in Listing 16 produces the screen outputshown in Figure 9

Important considerations The important things to note about the output shown in Listing 16 include:

  • The second object instantiated from local class B is definitely a different object from the first object instantiated from local class B , as evidenced by a different value for bTime . (Compare the value of bTime in Figure 9 with the value of bTime in Figure 5 .) In other words, the second object was instantiated after the first object wasinstantiated.
  • Even though the two objects instantiated from local class B are different objects, they both belong to the same containing object, asevidenced by the same values for aTime in Figure 9 and Figure 5 .
  • The two objects instantiated from local class B each access the same final local variable belonging to the method named meth , as evidenced by the same values for methTime in Figure 9 and Figure 5 .

Run the program

I encourage you to copy the code from Listing 17 . Compile the code and execute it. Experiment with the code,making changes, and observing the results of your changes. Make certain that you can explain why your changes behave as they do.


In addition to a number of other items, a class definition can contain:

  • Member classes
  • Local classes
  • Anonymous classes
  • Nested top-level classes and interfaces

Member classes were explained in the previous module. This module explains local classes. The next module will explain anonymous classes.

A local class is a class that is defined within a block of Java code. While local classes are probably mostfrequently defined within method and constructors, they can also be defined inside static initializer blocks and instance initializers.

An object of the local class must be internally linked to an object of the enclosing class (which I often refer to as the containing object). A local class is truly an inner class because an object of the local class cannot exist in theabsence of an object of the enclosing class.

The methods of a local class have direct access to all the members in the hierarchy of enclosing classes,including private members. In addition, the methods of local classes have access to final local variables and final method parameters in the scope in which the local class is defined.

The containment hierarchy of local classes is independent of the inheritance hierarchy. However, it is technically possible toestablish an inheritance relationship between a local class and one of its enclosing classes.

Local classes may not be declared public , protected , private , or static .

Local classes cannot contain static members.

A local class has approximately the same relationship to a member class that a local variable in a method has to an instance variable of the classcontaining the method.

What's next?

The next module in this series will explain and discuss anonymous classes, and will also compare anonymous classes to local classes.


This section contains a variety of miscellaneous information.

Housekeeping material
  • Module name: Java OOP: Local Classes
  • File: Java1638.htm
  • Published: 11/19/13

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Object-oriented programming (oop) with java' conversation and receive update notifications?