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You can now see all of the connections to the ground plane. You can do the same thing for the power plane. Press ‘ F5 ’ or the Refresh All button to make the whole design visible again.

We still have one voltage net to route, and that is the input voltage from an external power supply. This net only touches a few components, so we could just put a trace to connect all the components. However, we can also draw a solid piece of copper and associate it with that net. This is especially useful for high-current traces or small voltage planes. We do this using the Obstacle Tool just like when drawing obstacles for footprints. Turn the Obstacle Tool on and then right-click anywhere in your design. Select New… and then right-click again and select Properties… to bring up the Edit Obstacle dialog. Name this obstacle VCC_IN, leave the Width at 10 mils. Set the Clearance to 15 mils Change the Obstacle Type to Copper pour. Finally, set the Net Attachment to the name of the net, which should be V_IN . Click OK and you are ready to draw your copper pour. Draw a rectangle around the power connector and other components that are attached to this net. When you are done, click Refresh All to redraw the ratsnests.

You have now routed all the power and ground connections. That was easy, right? Let’s look a little bit at some of the tools that OrCAD gives you to check on the progress of your design. Click the View Spreadsheets icon and choose Statistics . The statistics spreadsheet gives you information on time in layout, percent of components placed, percent of traces routed, and some other information.

100% of your components should be placed, and you can also see that a majority of your traces have been routed (power and ground make up the majority of connections in most designs). You are well on your way to completing your design.

Routing other nets

You are now prepared to route the other connections on your board. Open the nets spreadsheet and highlight all the nets in the design. Right-click and select Enable<->Disable to make the ratsnets visible for the remaining nets. Refresh the display to clean things up a bit.

Before beginning routing in earnest, it is helpful to change a few settings. Open the System Settings and make the following changes: Visible Grid = 10, Routing Grid = 5, and Via Grid = 0. Next, select Options-->User Preferences and check Allow DRC Errors under Global Preferences . You may have to check the box labeled Activate Online DRC . The box with the dashed line will reappear. While DRC is on, you will only be able to place routes inside this box, but Layout will inform you if any spacing errors occur while you are routing. This will help you limit the number of errors that you will have to clean up later. You can resize the DRC box by pressing ‘ B ’ and drawing a new rectangle.

Let’s route a connection. Turn on the Edit Segment Mode or Add/Edit Route Mode .

Routing Mode Icons
The two have some subtle differences. Experiment with both to see which one you are most comfortable with. Let’s start by routing the connection for the pushbutton switch. Zoom in a bit and click on the ratsnest near pin 4 of the switch. Left-click to place a segment of a route. When you get near to pin 3, you can press ‘ F ’ to have Layout finish the trace for you. Pins 3 and 4 should now be connected. Now connect the resistor and capacitor that are nearby.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Source:  OpenStax, High-speed and embedded systems design (under construction). OpenStax CNX. Feb 18, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10212/1.12
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