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Energy stands as one of the most essential of all the earth’s resources. Human life would not exist without the heat, light and food that depend on it. Theworld consumption of energy has quadrupled in the past five decades. There has been a very great increase in the use of non-renewable energy sources, notablyfossil fuels, yet most energy is inefficiently used.

Your presentations must focus on any of the following themes for creating a sustainable city

  • Conserving : including terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems; restoration of; monitoring and conserving plants, animals and ecosystems.
  • Water conservation : monitoring and reducing water use; water harvesting&re-use
  • Waste management : waste / litter audits; reducing, reusing and recycling; composting; avoiding/appropriately disposing hazardous wastes
  • Energy conservation : monitoring and reducing energy use; alternative energy; global climate change
  • Environmental health : nutrition and food gardens; controlling air and water pollution; hygiene and sanitation; creating a healthy environment
  • Transport : reducing the use of fossil fuels and pollution through public / shared transport, walking and cycling programmes,

Procedural Guideline :

  • Decide on a topic. Choose a topic in which you have a particular interest and about which you would like to know more. It is quite probable that your fieldof interest has nothing to do with your school subject syllabus. The important thing is the investigative process that you follow. Get ideas from magazines/TV/ attached list.
  • Find a question that needs an answer. Read available literature as background information. Start planning your investigations/experiments that will hopefullyanswer your question.
  • Now consult with your teacher and possibly some expert in the field. Phone a relevant Company/University/Technicon Department. Ask for advice. Be politewhen asking!!
  • Your typed report:
  1. This should be a detailed account of your research and investigation .
  2. It should be neat , attractive and illustrated if possible. Concise. Use photocopies, scanned pictures or preferably use your own illustrations.
  3. Computer printed reports, using graphics are recommended.
  4. The format for the report should be as follows:

TITLE : Name of your project

AIM : What problem are you trying to solve?

METHOD : Show programmes followed to solve the problem. Include experiments, clearly illustrated. This could be done in a diary format.

RESULT : Preferably tabulate results of experiments and observations. Include graphs of results, if appropriate.

CONCLUSIONS : Very important

THEORY : Any theory, which needs explanation, can be included at any stage.

APPLICATION : Can these conclusions have any practical application in everyday life?

FURTHER RESEARCH: Very often your research opens up further questions related to your topic which someone else might like to investigate.


Include titles of books used, publishers and pages. Include names of people who advised and helped you. Be honest in this regard.




Visual impact10


Factual accuracy10

Adequate coverage10


Technique and controls10

Display of results10

Interpretation of results10


Factual accuracy10

Insight and understanding10


Enjoyment and learning experience5




PLANNING - Decide on topic. You must hand in a written report on what you are doing and how you are planning to set about it. You will be penalised if yourreport is late. (This may be written)


PROGRESS - You need to write about how far you’ve got with your

research, any complications/problems encountered, how you

propose to move on from there…



Rich media


This link is useful for consolidating the concepts of ecology. (External Link)

This link is useful for consolidating the concepts of ecosystems.

(External Link) In this exercise, you will utilize an online calculator to examine your ecological footprint, compare it to the average footprint in your country andother countries, and critically examine ways to reduce it.

VIDEO: (External Link)

Video on the study of the interaction between organisms and their environment. (External Link)ystems

Video that examines the types of interactions that exist among organisms in a community, from competition between consumers for specific resources to therelationship between predators and prey. (External Link) In this Interactive Exercise, you will use a marine ecosystem to investigate the dynamic nature of ecosystems. You will explore the various regions of the bay,and then investigate some of the natural and human-imposed changes to which the bay responds.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
why and for what was five kingdom of classification of organisms introduced
give the ans as fast as possible
Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
Mpho Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
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