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Although it is possible that there are purely internal explanations for the Society's rising costs, it is likely that the causes are primarily external. The strongest evidence for this is the fact that other nonprofit institutions share this tendency toward inexorable expenditure growth. A recent study of thirty-two prominent nonprofit institutions found that total expenditures rose at a nominal rate of 10.6 percent between 1972 and 1992.

Bowen, Nygren, Turner, and Duffy (1994), p. 168).
Similarly, a study of five major independent research libraries (institutions very similar in many ways to the Society) showed that between 1960 and 1993, their total expenditures rose at an average nomi­nal rate of 9.9 percent per year.
Bergman (1995).
The data clearly testify to significant upward pres­sure on costs at these types of institutions. Given such pressures, it is unlikely that these organizations can hope to balance their budgets through sustainable decreases in total expenditures without significant reductions in services.

Further evidence supporting this assertion emerges from the Society's 1992-1993 financial crisis. Facing mounting deficits and a growing threat of bank­ruptcy, the Society cut operating expenditures by 17 percent in fiscal 1992 and by 20 percent in fiscal 1993. To accomplish these cuts, the Society reduced its total workforce from a peak of 125 employees in the 1980s to a skeleton staff of just 35 employees in early 1993. The Society closed its galleries and suspended all public programs. There is a limit, however, to how much an organization can cut, year after year. For organizations with valuable collections and fixed assets, overhead and other fixed costs exist that cannot be avoided. Even though the Society had drastically reduced programs and services, its total operating expenditures in 1993 were still $5.3 million.

Such austerity measures have consequences. Most important, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, for an institution like the Society to generate significant contributed income while it is inactive. Such institutions are expected to offer exhibitions, public education programs, and community outreach services. After a certain point, reductions in expenditures decrease the capacity to generate revenue, both earned and contributed. In the case of the Society, the 1992 and 1993 cuts did not balance the budget; in fact, the deficit actually increased in 1992 and was still $1.5 million in 1993.

The implication of the unremitting pressure on costs is clear: if institutions like the Society are to remain financially viable for the long term, their revenues must grow steadily—and presumably faster than the overall inflation rate.


Generating revenues that keep pace with an ever-expanding expenditure base is made more complicated by the fact that all nonprofit revenues are not created equal. Unlike the for-profit sector, where dollars received can be used for whatever purposes management and the board may choose, nonprofit revenues often come with strings attached. A donor may stipulate that funds given to an institu­tion be used only for a specified purpose, spent over an established period of time, or retained in perpetuity as capital. The types of revenues generated by a non­profit institution can be as important as the absolute dollar values, especially in a time of crisis.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, The new-york historical society: lessons from one nonprofit's long struggle for survival. OpenStax CNX. Mar 28, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10518/1.1
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