This module is published by NCPEA Press and is presented as an NCPEA/Connexions publication. Each chapter has been peerreviewed, accepted, and endorsed by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a significant contribution to the scholarship and practice of education administration. Formatted and edited in Connexions by Theodore Creighton, Virginia Tech and Janet Tareilo, Stephen F. Austin State University.
Writing up your parametric dependent t test
About the Authors

John R. Slate is a Professor at Sam Houston State University where he teaches Basic and Advanced Statistics courses, as well as professional writing, to doctoral students in Educational Leadership and Counseling. His research interests lie in the use of educational databases, both state and national, to reform school practices. To date, he has chaired and/or served over 100 doctoral student dissertation committees. Recently, Dr. Slate created a website,
Writing and Statistical Help to assist students and faculty with both statistical assistance and in editing/writing their dissertations/theses and manuscripts.

Ana RojasLeBouef is a Literacy Specialist at the Reading Center at Sam Houston State University where she teaches developmental reading courses. She recently completed her doctoral degree in Reading, where she conducted a 16year analysis of Texas statewide data regarding the achievement gap. Her research interests lie in examining the inequities in achievement among ethnic groups. Dr. RojasLeBouef also assists students and faculty in their writing and statistical needs on the Writing and Statistical website,
Writing and Statistical Help
The following is an example of how to write up (in manuscript text) your Parametric Dependent Samples
t test statistics. This module is used with a larger Collection (Book) authored by John R. Slate and Ana RojasLeBouef from Sam Houston State University and available at:
Calculating Basic Statistical Procedures in SPSS: A SelfHelp and Practical Guide to Preparing Theses, Dissertations, and Manuscripts
Differences Between Boys’ CollegeReadiness Rates in Reading and in Math
Research question
The following research question was addressed in this study:
 What is the difference between boys’ collegereadiness rates in reading and in math?
Results
Prior to conducting inferential statistics to determine whether a statistically significant difference was present between boys’ collegereadiness rates in reading and in math, checks were conducted to determine the extent to which the data were normally distributed. Of the standardized skewness coefficients (i.e., the skewness value divided by its standard error) and the standardized kurtosis coefficients (i.e., the kurtosis value divided by its standard error), all were within the limits of normality, +/ 3 (Onwuegbuzie&Daniel, 2002). Readers are directed to Table 1 for the specific values of these standardized coefficients. Because the collegereadiness rates in reading and in math were normally distributed, a parametric dependent samples
t test was conducted to answer the research question.
The parametric dependent samples
t test analysis yielded a statistically significant result,
t (1006) = 52.76,
p <.001, Cohen’s
d = 0.69. The effect size for this difference was moderate (Cohen, 1988). Boys had a statistically significantly higher collegereadiness rate in math than they did in reading. Depicted in Table 2 are the descriptive statistics for boys’ collegereadiness rates in reading and in math.
References
 Cohen, J. (1988).
Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.)
. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
 Onwuegbuzie, A. J.,&Daniel, L. G. (2002). Uses and misuses of the correlation coefficient.
Research in the Schools, 9 (1)
, 7390.
To be compliant with APA 6th edition, students and faculty are to be aware that Table titles are placed "above" the table entry. Titles here are placed below the tables because of special formatting templates and for conciseness of visual presentation.
Standardized Skewness Coefficients and Standardized Kurtosis Coefficients for Boys’ CollegeReadiness Rates in Reading and in Math
Variable 
Standardized Skewness Coefficient 
Standardized Kurtosis Coefficient 
Reading Readiness Rates 
1.37 
0.85 
Math Readiness Rates 
0.39 
0.93 
Descriptive Statistics for Boys’ CollegeReadiness Rates in Reading and in Math
Variable by Years 
M 
SD 
Reading Readiness Rates 
39.91 
16.28 
Math Readiness Rates 
50.55 
15.97 
Figures 1 and 2 below came directly from SPSS output. As such, they are not compliant with APA
6th edition and should not be used in theses, dissertations, or manuscripts. Only Table 1 and 2above the Output from SPSS is compliant with APA format.
Spss statistical output