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A meta-analysis is defined as “the statistical analysis of a large collection of analysis results from individual results for the purpose of integrating the findings” (Glass, McGaw&Smith, 1981, p.3). Hamer and Simpson (2002) state that meta-analysis is a particularly useful tool for synthesizing and integrating large quantities of information from many studies with contradictory information. Since a large body of contradictory information exists on the question of whether emotional intelligence does have an effect on effective leadership it was thought a meta-analysis examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership would be helpful in answering many of the questions surrounding this newly popular concept. A meta-analysis of this relationship can help those responsible for school leadership determine if the skills associated with Emotional Intelligence should be an important element in the evaluation of school leaders.

Results of the study

The comprehensive attempt to identify relevant studies on EI’s effect on leadership effectiveness conducted between 1990 to the present yielded 141 studies. Forty-eight studies met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis sample. Those 48 studies yielded 99 correlations for analysis. Over half of the studies included in this study were in the form of unpublished dissertations (48%) and theses (8%) with forty-one percent of participants reported serving in the field of business or industry.

Determining the degree of homogeneity of the studies included in a meta-analysis helps to determine the statistical model to be used. A Q statistic was computed to explore whether the variability across effect sizes was greater than expected from sampling error alone. Based on a significant result for the Q statistic for these data, the hypothesis of homogeneity was rejected and a random-effects model was implemented. This significant Q statistic result was not unexpected given the essential random differences between studies that were associated with the framework of EI chosen and other study variables (e.g. the framework of leadership effectiveness, occupational setting, etc.). Incorporation of a random effects model allows for the estimation of the mean of a distribution of effects which prevents the underestimation of the weight of a small study or the overestimation of the weight of a large study (Borenstein, Hedges, Higgins,&Rothstein, 2007).

Using Biostat’s Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software Version 2.0, the 99 effect sizes from the correlational studies with a total of 7,343 subjects were converted into Fisher z scores and an overall effect size z was computed and converted to the initial metric of correlation coefficient. Based on the rule of thumb for product moment correlation effect size magnitudes suggested by Lipsey and Wilson (2001), correlation effect size values are considered small if less than or equal to .10, medium if equal to .25, and large if greater than or equal to .40. This meta-analysis yielded a combined effect of r= .383 which can be interpreted as a moderately strong relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea education leadership review, volume 10, number 2; august 2009. OpenStax CNX. Feb 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10710/1.2
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