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The methods of a local class can use any final local variables or method parameters that are visible from the scope in which the local class isdefined.

Similar to member classes

As mentioned earlier, local classes have many characteristics in common with member classes. This includes access to private fields and methods in thecontaining class. The thing that separates local classes from member classes is the fact that local classes have access to local variables in the scope in whichthe local class is defined.

A big restriction

There is a big restriction, however, on the ability of methods of the local class to access local variables and method parameters. The methods in a localclass can access local variables and method parameters only if they are declared final .

What does Flanagan have to say?

According to one of my favorite authors, David Flanagan, author of Java in a Nutshell, the methods in a local class don't really have access to localvariables and method parameters. Rather, when an object of the local class is instantiated, copies of the final local variables and method parameters referred to by the object's methods are stored as instance variables in theobject. The methods in the object of the local class really access those hidden instance variables. (See the later section entitled Smoke and mirrors.)

Thus, the local variables and method parameters accessed by the methods of the local class must be declared final to prevent their values from changing after the object is instantiated.

Restrictions on local classes

As with member classes, local classes cannot contain static members.

As with local variables, local classes cannot be declared public , protected , private , or static .

A local class cannot have the same name as any of its enclosing classes.

Smoke and mirrors

As I mentioned in the previous module, every class definition in a Java program, including nested top-level classes, member classes, local classes, andanonymous classes, produces a class file when the program is compiled. According to Flanagan,

"The Java Virtual Machine knows nothing about nested top-level classes and interfaces or the various types of inner classes. Therefore, the Javacompiler must convert these new types into standard non-nested class files that the Java interpreter can understand. This is done through source codetransformations that insert $ characters into nested class names. These source code transformations may also insert hidden fields, methods, andconstructor arguments into the affected classes."

A reference to the containing object

For example, the compiler automatically inserts a private instance variable in the local class to hold a reference to the containing object. It also insertsa hidden argument in all constructors for the local class, and passes the containing object's reference to the constructor for the local class. Themodified constructor saves that reference in the private instance variable of the object of the local class. Thus each object instantiated from the localclass contains a private reference to the containing object.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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