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This module provides study questions for the midterm exam for the courses, "Responsible Research in Appropriate Technology" and "Business, Government, and Society." The exam questions will be either similar to or taken from those provided. Students are also invited to contribute their own questions based on what they think should be covered or emphasized in the exam.

Responsible research: research misconduct

Plagiarism is considered one of the primary instances of research misconduct. In the presentation, The Grey World, plagiarism is defined as Plagio: La apropiación de las ideas o resultados de otras personas sin su autorización o sin dar crédito por la tarea realizada .

  • Is this definition adequate for all instances of plagiarism?
  • Are all instances of plagiarism also instances where copyright has been violated?
  • Why is avoiding plagiarism important for the responsible conduct of research?

Irbs and the belmont report

In its discussion of research involving human subject, the Belmont Report outlines three principles: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. Working with these principles, the Report's authors derive three framework considerations for evaluating research projects: informed consent, risk-benefits analysis, and selection of subjects. In this question, you will demonstrate an active knowledge of these three principles by deploying a framework based on using informed consent, risk-benefits analysis, and selection of subjects (avoiding unjust discrimination).

  • Before the Milgram experiments were carried out, a group of psychologists were asked to predict how many teachers/subjects would go all the way to the end and give the learner what they thought were life-threatening and highly painful shocks. The consensus was that most would stop the experiment early on when the learner first began to protest. But the actual results went contrary to these predictions. Over 60 percent of the teachers went all the way and gave the learner the maximum shock.
  • Milgram argued that his research demonstrated a propensity to delegate moral authority for one’s immoral actions to those in positions of power and authority. Proving this hypothesis through his experiments would seem to contribute greatly to social welfare and wellbeing; it would seem important to know this important fact about human behavior.
  • Using the principles and framework provided by the Belmont Report and playing the role of a member of an Institutional Review Board, do you think that these experiments satisfy the basic requirements of IRBs?

    Helpful considerations

  • Milgram's experiment involves a deception. What are the ethical implications of this deception according to the Belmont Report's framework?
  • Milgram argued that his experiment would cause temporary discomfort to the subjects but that this would be remedied in post-experiment interviews and debriefings. Do you think that this is a realistic claim?
  • Do the framework rules of informed consent and beneficence conflict with one another in judging the acceptability of this experiment. If so, what can be done to address this conflict?

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Business, government, and society. OpenStax CNX. Mar 04, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10560/1.6
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