# 4.6 Java1490-2d fourier transforms using java, part 1  (Page 11/15)

 Page 11 / 15

## The angle of attack is important

We now have a much more complex situation. If the waves continue to impinge on the array from one end or the other, the situation will be exactly the sameas when the sensors were on the wire. However, the apparent wavenumber or wavelength of a wave as seen by the array will depend on the angle of attack.

(There is now a difference between the actual wavelength or wavenumber and the apparent wavelength or wavenumber as seen by the array.)

## Infinite wavelength

For example, if the wave impinges on the array from a broadside direction, all of the sensors will move up and down in unison regardless of theirseparation and regardless of the actual wavelength of the wave. For this case, the wave will appear to the array to have infinite wavelength or zerowavenumber.

(A linear array has no ability to filter on the basis of wavenumber for waves that impinge on the array from the broadside direction. All wavesfrom that direction appear to have zero wavenumber. This will lead us later to consider the use of a two-dimensional array.)

## The 2D wavenumber response of a linear array

Figure 4 shows the two-dimensional wavenumber response for a five element linear array with equal weighting for all of the elements. The array is shown atthe top. The wavenumber response of the array is shown at the bottom.

(In this case, I placed all five elements on adjacent points on the space sampling grid with no spaces in between. This places them so close togetherthat you can't visually separate them in the image and they appear as a white line in a black background.)

Figure 4. The 2D wavenumber response of a linear array.

## The response for a constant wavenumber

If you were to draw a circle centered on the crosshairs (axes) in the center of the wavenumber response, the points on that circle would representa fixed wavenumber for a wave arriving from any direction. The value of the response at any particular point on the circle would indicate the response ofthe array to a wave having that wavenumber from that direction.

## Response versus direction

If the diameter of the circle is larger than the width of the red vertical band, and if you were to plot that response versus direction, you would see thatthe response is maximum for the two directions that are broadside to the array and the response tends to drop off as the direction approaches the end-firedirection of the array.

## Symmetry

You would also notice quite a lot of symmetry. For example, the maximum response occurs in two directions that are 180 degrees apart. In fact, if youpick any direction and a given wavenumber, the response is the same for that direction and for the direction that is 180 degrees around from that direction.

## Not good for the radio transmitter

This wouldn't be a very good design for the radio station that I described earlier. If one of the broadside directions of the array faces northeast and theother faces southwest, then the people who live in the northwest and southeast directions wouldn't receive a very good signal from your transmitter. You need adesign that maximizes the power in the four directions where the people live, and that minimizes the power in the other directions. To accomplish that, wewill need a two-dimensional array in place of our one-dimensional linear array.

what is the stm
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!