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In order to understand the full importance of these laws, it is necessary to understand the concepts of and relationships among mass, momentum, force, andacceleration.

Mass, momentum, force, and acceleration

Newton introduced the term mass as being distinct from weight . Mass is not easy to define in its own right. Mass can be thought of as being a "quantity ofmatter" or a "measure of inertia."

One of the properties of mass in a gravitational field is weight. Newton showed that weight is proportional to mass.

(In earlier modules, we have said that the weight of a body is a measure of the force required to cause that body to accelerate toward the surface of theearth at a rate of approximately 32.2 ft/s^2 or 9.81 m/s^2.)

Newton also worked with the concept of momentum , which is the product of the mass and the velocity of an object. Momentum is a vectorquantity, having the same direction as the velocity to which it applies. Therefore, momenta are always added or subtracted as vectors.

The rate of change of momentum

As indicated in the second law , the force required to bring about a change in momentum is proportional to the rate of change of themomentum:

F $ (m*v2 - m*v1)/t

where the momentum is changed from a value of m*v1 to a value of m*v2 in a time interval t .

(Note that I elected to use the $ character to indicate "is proportional to." Textbooks typically use a Greek letter for this purpose, which is not compatiblewith many Braille displays and some audio screen readers.)

Given that the mass is constant (for the scenarios addressed in this collection of modules), and acceleration is given by the rate of change ofvelocity, factoring mass out of the above equation gives us

F $ m*(v2 - v1)/t, or

F $ m*a

where a is acceleration. Thus, force is proportional to the product of mass and acceleration. For a given mass, a specific force is required to cause thatmass to accelerate by a given amount.

Resources

I will publish a module containing consolidated links to resources on my Connexions web page and will update and add to the list as additional modulesin this collection are published.

Miscellaneous

This section contains a variety of miscellaneous information.

Housekeeping material
  • Module name: Force and Motion -- Introduction
  • File: Phy1140.htm
  • Revised: 10/02/15
  • Keywords:
    • physics
    • accessible
    • accessibility
    • blind
    • graph board
    • protractor
    • screen reader
    • refreshable Braille display
    • JavaScript
    • trigonometry
    • Galileo
    • Newton
    • inertia
    • mass
    • momentum
    • force
    • acceleration
Disclaimers:

Financial : Although the openstax CNX site makes it possible for you to download a PDF file for the collection that contains thismodule at no charge, and also makes it possible for you to purchase a pre-printed version of the PDF file, you should beaware that some of the HTML elements in this module may not translate well into PDF.

You also need to know that Prof. Baldwin receives no financial compensation from openstax CNX even if you purchase the PDF version of the collection.

In the past, unknown individuals have copied Prof. Baldwin's modules from cnx.org, converted them to Kindle books, and placed them for sale on Amazon.com showing Prof. Baldwin as the author.Prof. Baldwin neither receives compensation for those sales nor does he know who doesreceive compensation. If you purchase such a book, please be aware that it is a copy of a collection that is freelyavailable on openstax CNX and that it was made and published without the prior knowledge of Prof. Baldwin.

Affiliation : Prof. Baldwin is a professor of Computer Information Technology at Austin Community College in Austin, TX.

-end-

Questions & Answers

important of enocomic
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Ahmad
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Ahmad
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where no alternative is available
Bhartendu
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Adam Smith
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Adam Smith
Francis
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Opana
Adam Smith
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it an economic situation where one individual controls the essential commodities or value product for maximum profit
James
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eliano
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Francis
what is Monopoly
Dauda Reply
The word Monopoly is a Latin word. it is the combination of two words-Mono means single and Poly means seller. thus Monopoly means single seller. but this is not the full meaning of Monopoly. Monopoly must produce a product which does not have close substitute in the market.
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Favour
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Onome Reply
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Cbdishakur
The deference between Monopoly and Oligopoly: Monopoly means:A single-firm-Industry producing and selling a product having no close business and Oligopoly means:A market structure where a few sellers compete with each other and each controls a significant portion of market .
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Cbdishakur
the word economic was derived from the Greek word oikos (a house)and mein(to manage) which in effect meant managing a household with the limited funds available 🙂.
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hon
An Enquiry into the nature and causes of wealth Nations, this book clearly defined what economic is🙂🙂🙏🙏 thank you...
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Emakpor
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hon
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lungi
because at time know money
Adu
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Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
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Source:  OpenStax, Accessible physics concepts for blind students. OpenStax CNX. Oct 02, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11294/1.36
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