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severity of conflict on the vertical axis, and population ratio on the horizontal axis. A scatterplot.
The relationship between population ratio (males aged 15 to 29 years per 100 males aged over 30 years) and conflict severity (death toll per million population per year) from 1980 to 1993 on a logarithmic scale. ( Adapted from Mesquida and Wiener 1995 )

severity on the vertical axis, and population ratio on the horizontal axis. A scatterplot.
The relationship between the 1989 population ratio (males aged 15 to 29 years per 100 males aged over 30 years) and severity of conflict (total death toll per million population) from 1989 to 1993 on a logarithmic scale. (Adapted from Mesquida and Wiener 1995)

How does testosterone affect aggression?

Although this chapter focuses on ultimate causes of human warfare, it is just as important to examine proximate causes in order to fully understand the nature of human aggression, such as the relationship between testosterone and aggression. Testosterone is the sex androgen believed to be responsible for masculine characteristics, and since females tend to have lower levels of testosterone as well as aggression, testosterone is assumed to have a causal relationship with aggressive behavior. In non-human animals, the hormone is known to be related to aggressiveness, and some studies have found a weak, positive relationship between testosterone levels and aggressiveness in humans as well (Book, Starzyk, and Quinsey 2001; Archer 1991). Testosterone levels have been shown to rise in males before engaging in competitive sports (Mazur and Booth 1998), and levels of testosterone can predict aggression in preschool boys (Sanchez-Martin, Fano, Ahedo, Cardas, Brain, and Azpiroz 2000). However, since studies in humans have largely been corrlational (Archer 1991), the exact nature of the relationship of testosterone in aggressive behavior in humans remains unclear.

Resource competition theory: why do males commit coalitionary violence?

The resource competition theory of coalitionary aggression posits that individual male participants involved in coalitionary acts of aggression gain fitness through an increased access to fitness-enhancing resources, as women prefer to mate with men who are able to provide themselves and potential offspring with these resources (Buss 1989). In this model, aggressive acts may increase fitness either when resources are under the control of a competitor, wherein an aggressor would increase fitness by gaining access to the resource, or when access to a resource is threatened by a competitor, wherein an aggressor avoids a fitness loss by limiting competition (Durham 1976; Buss and Shackelford 1997). Additionally, coalitions of men may also directly compete for access to women; for example, among the Yanomamo tribes have been recorded to raid neighboring groups and kidnap reproductive-aged females (Chagnon 1983 cited by Buss and Shackelford 1997).

In order to determine whether groups of males are more likely to compete over resources or females, researchers Manson and Wrangham hypothesized that when resources are easily monopolized, conflict will likely occur over these resources. However, in circumstances where essential resources are not easily monopolized, conflict will likely occur over females themselves. To ensure that resources are in fact related to reproductive fitness, the researchers also hypothesized that in situations where resources are easily monopolized, the accumulation of wealth will be associated with polygyny , whereas when resources are not easily monopolized, polygyny will correlate with other factors, such as social ranking or ability to defend family. To test this theory, the researchers analyzed the anthropological literature for ethnographic accounts of autonomous societies dependent on hunting and foraging that at least occasionally engaged in warfare. The researchers recorded whether the societies fought over resources or females, whether resources were easily monopolized, and whether polygyny and wealth were related. Results were consistent with predictions (see [link] and [link] ) (Manson and Wrangham 1991).

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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