<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Social sciences


Grade 8

Module 10

Resistance against british control


The Earliest Unions

Even before 1910 the government started implementing a policy of segregation. In 1912 the SANNC, the South African National Native Congress was founded. They sent a group of representatives to Britain to complain about the Law of Landownership of 1913. By this law, blacks could not own agricultural land outside designated areas, known as homelands or reservations. In 1923 the SANNC changed its name to the ANC, the African National Congress.

The NP (National Party) and the ANC both send representatives to Versailles in France to negotiate with the British Government for greater self-government. Hertzog (NP) and Sol Plaatje (ANC) succeeded in speaking to the British Prime Minister, Lloyd George, but Mr George did not want to get involved in the interior policies of South Africa. The Indians were dissatisfied because they had to pay taxes, like the 3-pound head tax owed to the British rulers. General Smuts of the SAP (South African Party) the prime minister of the Union of South Africa, negotiated with Ghandi, the leader of the Indians in South Africa.

When the First World War broke out (1914 – 1919) the biggest part of the South African population was dissatisfied with British control.

The ICU (Industrial and Commercial Workers’ Union) was founded as a union for the dock workers under the leadership of Clement Kadalie. By 1927 the ICU had branches everywhere, even in rural areas. This was the biggest union and it started turning militant later. The railway strike of June 1927 was organised by the ICU.

The Zulu Rebellion against the British rulers was mentioned before. (See Reading 3, the Anglo-Zulu War.) Previously people spoke about the Anglo-Boer War, in which the word Anglo denotes the British soldiers and the word Boer refers to the South Africans. This war was fought by more South Africans than the Boers only, therefore this name is preferable.

Activity 1:

Now draw a time-line to explain the progress of the icu.

[lo 2.1, 2.2, 2.3]

Activity 2:


[lo 1.4, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6]

  • By now you should have a good idea of the term resistance. Find articles, preferably in the daily newspaper, but feel free to use other sources covering resistance. Words that may help you in your search, can be: toyi-toyi, petition, boycott, strike, etc.

If you are unable to find articles in the newspapers, try magazines and the internet. The word “resistance” should help you in your search on the internet, as key word for your search engine.

  • PASTE in your article here. If you find more sources, please staple them together here. Ask Mom and Dad or a friendly relative to help you.
  • SUMMARY: Write down a summary of the contents of your article.


Who was involved and how did it influence their lives

After the failure of the Jameson raid, President Kruger of the ZAR was determined to keep the foreigners out of his government. In 1897, Milner was appointed as the new High Commis

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, History grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11044/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'History grade 8' conversation and receive update notifications?