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The evolution of administrator certification

By 1701, the General Court of Massachusetts decreed that “every grammar-school master to be approved by the minister of the town, and the ministers of the two next adjacent towns or any town of them, by certificate under their hand” (Cole, 1957, p. 72). Woellner (1949) stated there were two main areas of competence that were implied by certification: academic preparation and professional preparation (p. 251). A framework was established early on by government in relation to standards of quality for teachers. In so doing, it reinforced a responsibility that the state had in governing American education. A system of licensing qualified educators to teach, and later administer, schools can be traced to the simple need to ensure competent teachers and administrators.

The certificated educational administrator was a slowly evolving state expectation for those who would lead and manage K-12 schools and school districts. The issue of administrator certification was closely linked to the rise of university preparation programs. Columbia University became the first program of study in educational administration at the beginning of the twentieth century. States, in establishing a credentialing system for principals and superintendents in the early 1900’s, turned to the newly emerging discipline of educational administration to deliver the training component required of the certification system. By the close of the 20th century, over 500 colleges and universities offered a course of study in the field of educational administration (Levine, 2005).

Requiring professional training in educational administration

Over the course of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, states gradually assumed responsibility for standards of quality for teachers and administrators. It was during the 20th century, however, that administrator certification became a requirement in all fifty states. For a brief amount of time in the 1990s principals and superintendents had to present state approved certificates in all 50 states that showed evidence of pre-service university training before they could be hired in local public schools.

The certification of school administrators became a state monitored standard of quality that emanated from the people through its state departments of education. What was once a local need to ensure mastery of academic knowledge and professional ability in teaching became a comprehensive system of review that grew with each state’s widening responsibility to educate its citizens and insure educational quality. Local communities were not equipped to handle the bureaucratic oversight of a credentialing system. Departments of education centralized certification under the state umbrella at about the same time programs in educational administration began to proliferate in order to support the state credentialing system.

Administrator certification had a very slow trajectory of growth and acceptance during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In 1854, only Pennsylvania required superintendents to have a certificate of qualification. By 1900, it was still the only state with such a requirement. From 1900 to 1957, however, “45 states issued certificates for superintendents, 46 for high school principals, and 45 for elementary principals” (Howsam&Morphet, 1958, p. 79). As states embraced their responsibility to establish standards of quality through certification of school administrators, programs of preparation were established within universities. Universities were the logical source of training to ensure that the quality standards established by the states were met through the educational administration curriculum. Columbia University began offering courses within its teacher training program in 1899 (Teachers College Record, 1919, p. 276). Prior to that time, educational administration was considered part of teaching and incorporated into a general responsibility for managing the affairs of schooling. Thus, at the beginning of the 20th century, the field of educational administration existed as an idea that took shape as a specialized program of study. From this beginning educational administration evolved and grew into a professional field of study that shaped how principals and superintendents approached the task of leading America’s schools.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mentorship for teacher leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10622/1.3
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