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As mentioned previously, the functional unit of the kidney is the nephron, illustrated in [link] . Each kidney is made up of over one million nephrons that dot the renal cortex, giving it a granular appearance when sectioned sagittally. A nephron consists of three parts—a renal corpuscle, a renal tubule, and the associated capillary network, which originates from the arteries that supply blood to the kidney.

Illustration shows the nephron, a tube-like structure that begins in the kidney cortex. Here, arterioles converge in a bulb-like structure called the glomerulus, which is partly surrounded by a Bowman’s capsule. Afferent arterioles enter the glomerulus, and efferent arterioles leave. The glomerulus empties into the proximal convoluted tubule. A long loop, called the loop of Henle, extends from the proximal convoluted tubule to the inner medulla of the kidney, and then back out to the cortex. There, the loop of Henle joins a distal convoluted tubule. The distal convoluted tubule joins a collecting duct, which travels from the medulla back into the cortex, toward the center of the kidney. Eventually, the contents of the renal pyramid empty into the renal pelvis, and then the ureter.
The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. The glomerulus and convoluted tubules are located in the kidney cortex, while collecting ducts are located in the pyramids of the medulla. (credit: modification of work by NIDDK)

Renal corpuscle

The renal corpuscle, located in the renal cortex, is made up of a network of capillaries known as the glomerulus and the capsule, a cup-shaped chamber that surrounds it, called the glomerular or Bowman's capsule .

Renal tubule

The renal tubule is a long and convoluted structure that emerges from the glomerulus and can be divided into three parts based on function. The first part is called the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) due to its proximity to the glomerulus; it stays in the renal cortex. The second part is called the loop of Henle , or nephritic loop, because it forms a loop (with descending and ascending limbs ) that goes through the renal medulla. The third part of the renal tubule is called the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and this part is also restricted to the renal cortex. The DCT, which is the last part of the nephron, connects and empties its contents into collecting ducts that line the medullary pyramids. The collecting ducts amass contents from multiple nephrons and fuse together as they enter the papillae of the renal medulla.

Capillary network within the nephron

The capillary network that originates from the renal arteries supplies the nephron with blood that needs to be filtered. The branch that enters the glomerulus is called the afferent arteriole. The branch that exits the glomerulus is called the efferent arteriole. Within the glomerulus, the network of capillaries is called the glomerular capillary bed. Once the efferent arteriole exits the glomerulus, it forms the peritubular capillary network, which surrounds and interacts with parts of the renal tubule.

Kidney function and physiology

Kidneys filter blood in a three-step process. First, the nephrons filter blood that runs through the capillary network in the glomerulus. Almost all solutes, except for proteins, are filtered out into the glomerulus by a process called glomerular filtration . The high arterial pressure and the permeable membranes of the glomerulus (see below) combine to accomplish this filtration. Second, the filtrate is collected in the renal tubules. Most of the solutes get reabsorbed in the PCT by a process called tubular reabsorption . In the loop of Henle, the filtrate continues to exchange solutes and water with the renal medulla and the peritubular capillary network. Water is also reabsorbed during this step. Then, additional solutes and wastes are secreted into the kidney tubules during tubular secretion , which is, in essence, the opposite process to tubular reabsorption. The collecting ducts collect filtrate coming from the nephrons and fuse in the medullary papillae. From here, the papillae deliver the filtrate, now called urine, into the minor calyces that eventually connect to the ureters through the renal pelvis. This entire process is illustrated in [link] .

Questions & Answers

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of biology. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11569/1.25
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