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Results of iodine doping of an Al/MEH-PPV/ITO-based LED.
Un-doped Doped
Turn on voltage (V) 10 foreword 5, reversed 12
External efficiency (%) 4 x 10 -4 8 x 10 -3

Polymer leds on a silicon substrate: an application advantage over inorganic leds

In the initial research polymer LEDs were in direct competition with the inorganic LEDs and tried to achieve the existing LED standard. This is a difficult task as polymer LEDs have a lower long term stability. However, there are some applications in which polymer LEDs have a clear advantage over their more traditional inorganic analogs. One of these is to incorporate LEDs with the silicon integrated circuits for inter-chip communication.

It is difficult to build inorganic LEDs on a silicon substrate, because of the thermal stress developing between the inorganic LED (usually a III-V based device) and the silicon interface. But polymer LEDs offer a solution, since polymers can be easily spin-coated on the silicon. The operating voltage of polymer LED is less than 4 V, and the turn on voltage can be as low as 2 V. Together with a switching time of less than 50 ns, make polymer LED a perfect candidate.

Reliability and degradation of polymer leds

In terms of the efficiency, color selection, and driving voltage, polymer LED have attained adequate level for commercialization. However, the device lifetime is still far from satisfactory. Research into understanding the reliability and degredation mechanisms of polymer LEDs has generally been divided into two area:

  1. Photo-degradation of polymer.
  2. Interface degradation.

Polymer photo degradation

Photoluminescece (PL) studies of the photo-oxidation of PPV have been undertaken, since it is believes that EL is closely related with PL.

It was found that there is a rapid decay in emission when PPV is exposed to oxygen. Using time resolved FTIR spectroscopy an increase in the carbonyl signal and a decrease in C=C signal with time ( [link] ). It was suggested that the carbonyl group has a strong electron affinity level to charge transfer between molecules segment in the polymer, thereby dissociating the excition and quenching the PL.

FTIR as a function of photo-oxidation of PPV. Adapted from M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin and T. M. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. , 1994, 73 , 744.

Similar research was performed by Cumpston and Jensen using BCHA-PPV and P3OT ( [link] ) and exposing them to dry air in UV irradiation. In BCHA-PPV, there is an increase in carbonyl signal with time, while the P3OT remain intact. A mechanism proposed for the degradation of BCHA-PPV involves the transfer of energy from the excited triplet state of the PPV to oxygen to from singlet oxygen which attack the vinyl double bond in the PPV backbone. And P3OT dose not has vinyl bond so it can resist the oxidation .

Structure of (a) BCHA-PPV and (b) P3OT.

The research described above was all performed on polymer thin films deposited on an inert surface. The presence of cathode and anode may also affect the oxidation mechanism. Scott et al. have taken IR spectra from a MEH-PPV LED in the absence of oxygen. They obtained similar result as in Yan et al., however, a decrease in ITO’s oxygen signal was noticed suggesting that the ITO anode acts like a oxygen reservoir and supplies the oxygen for the degradation process.

Polymer led interface degradation

There are few interface degredation studies in polymer LEDs. One of them by Scott et al. took SEM image of the cathode from a failed polymer LED. The polymer LED used ITO as the anode, MEH-PPV as the polymer layer, and an aluminum calcium alloy as cathode. SEM images showed “craters” formed in the cathode. The craters are formed when the cathode metal is melted and pull away from the polymer layer. It was suggested that a high current density will generate heat and result in local hot spot. The temperature in the hot spot is high enough to melt the cathode. And when it melt, it will pull away from the polymer. This process will decrease the effective cathode area, and reduce the luminescence gradually.

Bibliography

  • D. R. Baigent, N. C. Greenham, J. Gruner, R. N. Marks, R. H. Friends, S. C. Moratti, and A. B. Holmes, Synth. Met., 1994, 67 , 3.
  • B. H. Cumpston and K. F. Jensen, Synth. Met., 1995, 73 , 195.
  • J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, Nature , 1990, 347 , 539.
  • N. C. Greenham, S. C.Maratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, and A. B. Holmes, Nature , 1993, 365 , 628.
  • J. Gruner, F. Cacialli, I. D. W. Samuel, R. H. Friend, Synth. Met, 1996, 76, 197.
  • M. Herold, J. Gmeiner, W. Riess, and M. Schwoerer, Synth. Met. , 1996, 76 , 109.
  • R. H. Jordan, A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and R. E. Slusher, Proceeding of SPIE , 1997, 3002 , 92.
  • I. D. Parker and H. H. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. , 1994, 64 , 1774.
  • J. C. Scott, J. Kaufman, P. J. Brock, R. DiPietro, J. Salem, and J. A. Goitia, J. Appl. Phys. , 1996, 79 , 2745.
  • M. S. Weaver, D. G. Lidzaey, T. A. Fisher, M. A. Pate, D. O’Brien, A. Bleyer, A. Tajbakhsh, D. D. C. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, and G. Hill, Thin solid Films, 1996, 273 , 39.
  • M. Yan, L. J.Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, and T. M. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. , 1994, 73 , 744.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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