# 0.2 The atom  (Page 7/14)

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## Interesting fact

In Greek, “same place” reads as $\stackrel{}{\iota }\sigma o\varsigma$ $\tau \stackrel{}{o}\pi o\varsigma$ (isos topos). This is why atoms which have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons, are called isotopes . They are in the same place on the Periodic Table!

The following worked examples will help you to understand the concept of an isotope better.

For the element ${}_{92}^{234}\mathrm{U}$ (uranium), use standard notation to describe:

1. the isotope with 2 fewer neutrons
2. the isotope with 4 more neutrons
1. We know that isotopes of any element have the same number of protons (same atomic number)in each atom, which means that they have the same chemical symbol. However, they have a different number of neutrons, and therefore a different mass number.

2. Therefore, any isotope of uranium will have the symbol:

$\mathrm{U}$

Also, since the number of protons in uranium isotopes is always the same, we can write down the atomic number:

${}_{92}\mathrm{U}$

Now, if the isotope we want has 2 fewer neutrons than ${}_{92}^{234}\mathrm{U}$ , then we take the original mass number and subtract 2, which gives:

${}_{92}^{232}\mathrm{U}$

Following the steps above, we can write the isotope with 4 more neutrons as:

${}_{92}^{238}\mathrm{U}$

Which of the following are isotopes of ${}_{20}^{40}\mathrm{Ca}$ ?

• ${}_{19}^{40}\mathrm{K}$
• ${}_{20}^{42}\mathrm{Ca}$
• ${}_{18}^{40}\mathrm{Ar}$
1. We know that isotopes have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.

2. You need to look for the element that has the same atomic number but a different atomic mass number. The only element is ${}_{20}^{42}\mathrm{Ca}$ . What is different is that there are 2 more neutrons than in the original element.

For the sulphur isotope ${}_{16}^{33}\mathrm{S}$ , give the number of...

1. protons
2. nucleons
3. electrons
4. neutrons
1. $Z=16$ , therefore the number of protons is 16 (answer to (a)).

2. $A=33$ , therefore the number of nucleons is 33 (answer to (b)).

3. The atom is neutral, and therefore the number of electrons is the same as the number of protons. The number of electrons is 16 (answer to (c)).

4. $\begin{array}{c}\hfill N=A-Z=33-16=17\end{array}$

The number of neutrons is 17 (answer to (d)).

## Isotopes

1. Atom A has 5 protons and 5 neutrons, and atom B has 6 protons and 5 neutrons. These atoms are...
1. allotropes
2. isotopes
3. isomers
4. atoms of different elements
2. For the sulphur isotopes, ${}_{16}^{32}\mathrm{S}$ and ${}_{16}^{34}\mathrm{S}$ , give the number of...
1. protons
2. nucleons
3. electrons
4. neutrons
3. Which of the following are isotopes of ${}_{17}^{35}\mathrm{Cl}$ ?
1. ${}_{35}^{17}\mathrm{Cl}$
2. ${}_{17}^{35}\mathrm{Cl}$
3. ${}_{17}^{37}\mathrm{Cl}$
4. Which of the following are isotopes of $\mathrm{U-}235$ ? (X represents an element symbol)
1. ${}_{92}^{238}\mathrm{X}$
2. ${}_{90}^{238}\mathrm{X}$
3. ${}_{92}^{235}\mathrm{X}$

## Relative atomic mass

It is important to realise that the atomic mass of isotopes of the same element will be different because they have a different number of nucleons. Chlorine, for example, has two common isotopes which are chlorine-35 and chlorine-37. Chlorine-35 has an atomic mass of 35 u, while chlorine-37 has an atomic mass of 37 u. In the world around us, both of these isotopes occur naturally. It doesn't make sense to say that the element chlorine has an atomic mass of 35 u, or that it has an atomic mass of 37 u. Neither of these are absolutely true since the mass varies depending on the form in which the element occurs. We need to look at how much more common one is than the other in order to calculate the relative atomic mass for the element chlorine. This is the number that you find on the Periodic Table.

what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Good
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP