# Mole concept

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Stoichiometry is a branch of chemistry which deals with quantitative relationships of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction. The quantity of substance involved in measurement has different states (solid, liquid and gas) and forms (mixture and compound).

The stoichiometry calculations are basically arithmetic calculations, but confounded by scores of measuring terminologies. These terms are required to represent atomic or molecular level of association involved in chemical reactions. Besides chemical substance reacts or combines in definite proportion which we account by valence factor. Corresponding to valence factor, there are measurements which measures the proportion in which one element or group of elements reacts or combines with another element or group of elements.

$xA+yB\to {A}_{x}{B}_{y}$

A good part of stoichiometry is about mastering measuring terms. In this module, we seek to have a clear idea of mole and associated concept which is central to stoichiometry calculation.

## Moles

Moles measure quantity of substance. There is a subtle ambiguity about treating “moles” – whether as “mass” or “number”. We take the position that it measures “amount of substance”, which can be either be expressed in terms of mass or in terms of numbers. The two approaches are equivalent and need not be a source of ambiguity any further. We only need to interpret the meaning as appropriate in a particular context.

One mole is defined as ${N}_{o}$ entities of the substance, where ${N}_{o}$ is equal to Avogadro’s number. ${N}_{o}$ is generally taken as $6.022X{10}^{23}$ . If need be, then we may use still closer approximation of this number.

## Relation between mole and molecular weight

The mole and molecular weight are designed to be related. Argument goes like this :

1: Molecular weight is arithmetic sum of atomic weights of constituent atoms.

2: Atomic weight is expressed in “atomic mass unit (a.m.u)”.

3: The atomic mass unit is the mass of ${\frac{1}{12}}^{\mathrm{th}}$ of C-12 atom. This is average weight of constituent 6 protons and 6 neutrons forming nucleus of C-12 atom. The a.m.u, therefore, is close to the mass of either a single proton or single neutron as a constituent of C-12. The a.m.u is numerically equal to :

$1a.m.u=1.66X{10}^{-27}\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}kg=1.66X{10}^{-24}\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}gm$

4: On the scale of a.m.u, the atomic weight of a carbon atom is exactly “12” and that of hydrogen is “1.008” or about “1”.

5: The number of C-12 atoms present in the quantity expressed in grams but numerically equal to atomic weight (as measured in a.m.u.) is given as :

${N}_{o}=\frac{\text{grams numerically equal to atomic weight}}{\text{Mass of one C-12 atom in gram}}=\frac{12}{12X1.66X{10}^{-24}}$

The important point about this ratio is that “12” as atomic weight in the numerator and “12” as the number of a.m.u units in a single atom of C-12 cancels out, leaving us with a constant ratio :

$⇒{N}_{o}=\frac{1}{1.66X{10}^{-24}}=6.022X{10}^{23}$

Clearly, this ratio is same for all elements. It means that the numbers of atoms in the grams numerically equal to atomic weight is ${N}_{o}$ for all elements. Putting it equivalently, the mass of a collection ${N}_{o}$ atoms of an element is equal to grams numerically equal to atomic weight.

#### Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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