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Stoichiometry is a branch of chemistry which deals with quantitative relationships of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction. The quantity of substance involved in measurement has different states (solid, liquid and gas) and forms (mixture and compound).

The stoichiometry calculations are basically arithmetic calculations, but confounded by scores of measuring terminologies. These terms are required to represent atomic or molecular level of association involved in chemical reactions. Besides chemical substance reacts or combines in definite proportion which we account by valence factor. Corresponding to valence factor, there are measurements which measures the proportion in which one element or group of elements reacts or combines with another element or group of elements.

x A + y B A x B y

A good part of stoichiometry is about mastering measuring terms. In this module, we seek to have a clear idea of mole and associated concept which is central to stoichiometry calculation.


Moles measure quantity of substance. There is a subtle ambiguity about treating “moles” – whether as “mass” or “number”. We take the position that it measures “amount of substance”, which can be either be expressed in terms of mass or in terms of numbers. The two approaches are equivalent and need not be a source of ambiguity any further. We only need to interpret the meaning as appropriate in a particular context.

One mole is defined as N o entities of the substance, where N o is equal to Avogadro’s number. N o is generally taken as 6.022 X 10 23 . If need be, then we may use still closer approximation of this number.

Relation between mole and molecular weight

The mole and molecular weight are designed to be related. Argument goes like this :

1: Molecular weight is arithmetic sum of atomic weights of constituent atoms.

2: Atomic weight is expressed in “atomic mass unit (a.m.u)”.

3: The atomic mass unit is the mass of 1 12 th of C-12 atom. This is average weight of constituent 6 protons and 6 neutrons forming nucleus of C-12 atom. The a.m.u, therefore, is close to the mass of either a single proton or single neutron as a constituent of C-12. The a.m.u is numerically equal to :

1 a . m . u = 1.66 X 10 - 27 k g = 1.66 X 10 - 24 g m

4: On the scale of a.m.u, the atomic weight of a carbon atom is exactly “12” and that of hydrogen is “1.008” or about “1”.

5: The number of C-12 atoms present in the quantity expressed in grams but numerically equal to atomic weight (as measured in a.m.u.) is given as :

N o = grams numerically equal to atomic weight Mass of one C-12 atom in gram = 12 12 X 1.66 X 10 - 24

The important point about this ratio is that “12” as atomic weight in the numerator and “12” as the number of a.m.u units in a single atom of C-12 cancels out, leaving us with a constant ratio :

N o = 1 1.66 X 10 - 24 = 6.022 X 10 23

Clearly, this ratio is same for all elements. It means that the numbers of atoms in the grams numerically equal to atomic weight is N o for all elements. Putting it equivalently, the mass of a collection N o atoms of an element is equal to grams numerically equal to atomic weight.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Stoichiometry. OpenStax CNX. Jul 05, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10540/1.7
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