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Value generation

  • The greater “productivity” of promiscuous collaborators is a stark example of a cluster providing a “whole is greater than the sum of its parts” (Porter 2000).


Governance is responsible for facilitating the strategic direction of an organisation. It establishes and maintains corporate values and seeks to ensure that they are embedded in the culture. Governance allows the executive to deliver the agreed vision. This study has identified that there is a culture in Wales that tends to see governance as a necessary evil; an inconvenience and a distraction. This view seems to be endemic and is in need of urgent attention. In addition there seems to be a total disconnect between the governance of different organisations, particularly those in the public sector. HE governance structures seem to have little shared vision and there is limited strategic dialogue both within and across areas of the public sector. Divisions of WAG, the HE sector, the NHS and local authorities seem to compete rather than collaborate. Whilst this view might seem controversial, it is certainly the opinion often held by business in Wales. The advantage of being a small nation that should be ‘joined up’ seems to be being lost. However, as identified during the study, green shoots of optimism can be seen as the benefits of partnerships such as the Texas/UK Collaborative draw together collaboration amongst the HE, Health, and broader public sectors, together with industry.

Take for example the comparison between Wales and Ireland in terms of alumni and diaspora. The Irish have exploited their diaspora to great economic and social effect. Virtually every city and region of the US has an Irish society and this is used effectively to establish networks and partnerships. The Welsh on the other hand do not even have a developed data base of university alumni a resource that could be very valuable in the context of the knowledge economy. The individual universities refuse to share information with each other or with government regarding their alumni. This means that each separate organisation has an under resourced alumni infrastructure leaving a valuable asset neglected. Diaspora and alumni networks can be of great value to a knowledge economy cluster in terms of partnership development, recruitment and retention of key individuals and in building the reputation of the region globally. If the executive functions of the region fail to collaborate in the common good then it is only a strong and integrated governance process that can force change.

Another identified barrier to the development and implementation of a knowledge economy cluster strategy in the South West Wales region is the ability of key actors to be commercially flexible. IP policies in particular are key to the agenda, it is they that can facilitate or conversely be a barrier to open innovation.

Perspectives from the study underpinning this are described below.

Regional coherence

  • Both the stakeholder interviews and Collaborative questionnaire highlight the importance of regional cohesiveness to establish strong and effective linkages across clusters. While strategies such as the Science Policy for Wales (2006) aim to achieve this, it is clear from stakeholder interviews that much remains to be done.
  • The role of government in providing facilitation through good governance and provision of resource was acknowledged by all interview respondents. The role of commercial value creation should be left to the private sector. However, where other value can be delivered, e.g. within the Public/Education sectors, it could be considered that Academics and Civil Servants may also be considered as a variation of Schumpeter’s Entrepreneur.
  • The institutional perspective of cohesiveness shows that those engaged in collaboration are more positive about alignments with external partners. This suggests a virtuous circle of collaboration spawning collaboration. Further data underpins this, demonstrating a greater scale of collaborative activity amongst those already engages in the TX/UK Collaborative.

Strategic imperatives

  • Embedding a collaborative culture, developing collaborative human capital, and realizing World Class multidisciplinary research collaborations are seen by all interview respondents as strategic imperatives. Respondents at all levels were aligned in this observation.
  • The recognition of mutual value generation is a key emerging theme from the responses of all stakeholders interviewed in the study. This includes consideration of academic, commercial, and economic development outputs. However some respondents draw attention to some institutions being more focused on collaboration rather than the outcomes of collaboration. This sits interestingly with the observation by Faster Cures (2010) in discussing the need for more outcome focused collaborative research activities.


  • Abbey JV, Mainwaring L. and Davies G.H. 2008, “Vorsprung durch Technium: building a System of Innovation in South West Wales’, Regional Studies,  Vol. 42, Iss.2, pp. 281 – 293.
  • Davis D. and Weinstein D., 1999, “Economic geography and regional production structure: an empirical investigation”, European Economic Review Vol. 43 , pp. 379–407.
  • De Laurentis C., Cooke P. and Williams, G., 2003, “Barriers to the Knowledge Economy- New Media Cluster in the Periphery”, Paper presented at the Regional Studies Association International Conference, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna Pisa 12th -15th April 2003.
  • Faster Cures, 2010, “Entrepeneurs for Cures: The Critical Need for Innovative Approaches to Disease Research”, The Center for Accelerating Medical Solutions.
  • Milken Global Conference, Los Angeles April 2010.
  • Moore G., 2005, “Dealling with Darwin: How Great Companies Innovate at Every Stage of Evolution”, Portfolio Hardcover, ISBN-10 -1591841070.
  • NAW, 2006, “Enterprise, Innovation and Networks Committee, Review of Science Policy in Wales”, National Assembly of Wales.
  • OECD, 1996, “The Knowledge-based Economy”, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
  • ONS, 2004, “Social Trends Report 34: Proportional effect on earnings of a degree level qualification: by sex and degree subject”, 1993-2001, Dataset ST340510, UK National Statistics.
  • Porter M., 2000, “Location, Competition and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy”, Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 4, Iss. 15, pp 15-34.
  • Porter M. and Stern S., 1999, “The New Challenge to Americas Prosperity: Findings from the Innovation Index”, Council of Competitiveness.
  • Work Foundation, 2006, “The Knowledge Economy in Europe: A Report prepared for the 2007 EU Spring Council, The Work Foundation.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A study of how a region can lever participation in a global network to accelerate the development of a sustainable technology cluster. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11417/1.2
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