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When light travels from one medium to another, it will be bent away from its original path. When it travels from an optically dense medium like water or glass to a less dense medium like air, it will be refracted away from the normal ( [link] ). Whereas, if it travels from a less dense medium to a denser one, it will be refracted towards the normal ( [link] ).

Light is moving from an optically dense medium to an optically less dense medium. Light is refracted away from the normal.
Light is moving from an optically less dense medium to an optically denser medium. Light is refracted towards the normal.

Just as we defined an angle of reflection in the previous section, we can similarly define an angle of refraction as the angle between the surface normal and the refracted ray. This is shown in [link] .

Light moving from one medium to another bends towards or away from the surface normal. The angle of refraction θ is shown.

Refractive index

Which is easier to travel through, air or water? People usually travel faster through air. So does light! The speed of light and therefore the degree of bending of the light depends on the refractive index of material through which the light passes. The refractive index (symbol n ) is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in the material.

Refractive Index

The refractive index of a material is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in the medium.

Interesting fact

The symbol c is used to represent the speed of light in a vacuum.

c = 299 792 485 m · s - 1

For purposes of calculation, we use 3 × 10 8 m · s - 1 . A vacuum is a region with no matter in it, not even air. However, the speed of light in air is very close to that in a vacuum.

Refractive Index

The refractive index (symbol n ) of a material is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in the material and gives an indication of how difficult it is for light to get through the material.

n = c v

where

n = refractive index (no unit)
c = speed of light in a vacuum ( 3 , 00 × 10 8 m · s - 1 )
v = speed of light in a given medium ( m · s - 1 )

Refractive index and speed of light

Using

n = c v

we can also examine how the speed of light changes in different media, because the speed of light in a vacuum ( c ) is constant.

If the refractive index n increases, the speed of light in the material v must decrease. Light therefore travels slowly through materials of high n .

[link] shows refractive indices for various materials. Light travels slower in any material than it does in a vacuum, so all values for n are greater than 1.

Refractive indices of some materials. n air is calculated at STP.
Medium Refractive Index
Vacuum 1
Helium 1,000036
Air* 1,0002926
Carbon dioxide 1,00045
Water: Ice 1,31
Water: Liquid ( 20 C) 1,333
Acetone 1,36
Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol) 1,36
Sugar solution (30%) 1,38
Fused quartz 1,46
Glycerine 1,4729
Sugar solution (80%) 1,49
Rock salt 1,516
Crown Glass 1,52
Sodium chloride 1,54
Polystyrene 1,55 to 1,59
Bromine 1,661
Sapphire 1,77
Glass (typical) 1,5 to 1,9
Cubic zirconia 2,15 to 2,18
Diamond 2,419
Silicon 4,01

Snell's law

Now that we know that the degree of bending, or the angle of refraction, is dependent on the refractive index of a medium, how do we calculate the angle of refraction?

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Maths test. OpenStax CNX. Feb 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11236/1.2
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