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  • To have every student achieve to his or her potential.
  • To learn how to learn and to think critically.
  • To encourage students to take an active role in their own education by bringing their stories and experiences into the learning scope.
  • To address diverse learning styles.
  • To appreciate the contributions of different groups who have contributed to our knowledge base.
  • To develop positive attitudes about groups of people who are different from ourselves.
  • To become good citizens of the school, the community, the country, and the world community.
  • To learn how to evaluate knowledge from different perspectives.
  • To develop an ethnic, national, and global identity.
  • To provide decision-making skills and critical-analysis skills so the students can make better choices in their everyday lives.


(Adpated from: Gordon and Roberts, Report of social studies syllabus review and development committee, 1991)

  • The selection of subject matter content should be culturally inclusive, based on up-to-date scholarship. This inclusivity shouldincorporate opposing opinions and divergent interpretations.
  • The subject matter content selected for inclusion should represent diversity and unity within and across groups.
  • The subject matter selected for inclusion should be set within the context of its time and place.
  • The subject matter selected for inclusion should give priority to depth over breadth.
  • Multicultural perspectives should infuse the entire curriculum, pre K-12.
  • The subject matter content should be treated as socially constructed and therefore tentative - as is all knowledge.
  • The teaching of all subjects should draw and build on the experience and knowledge that the students bring to the classroom.
  • Pedagogy should incorporate a range of interactive modes of teaching and learning in order to foster understanding (rather thanrote learning), examination of controversy, and mutual learning.

Required Reading PDF:

The IS and the ISN'T of Multicultural Education

Reflecting on personal multiculturalism

Things I Can Do - adapted from Edchange

  • It is important to be aware of one's own identity and how one expresses it.
  • It is important to ask questions of others to find out if I am being sensitive to their needs. It is important to invite feedback about how Iam being perceived.
  • It is important that I see what the results may be of my actions in terms of who may be excluded or included. I must consider all my students asequals, so if my actions favor one kind of student over another, I am discriminating and must change my behavior.
  • If I am not connecting with particular kinds of students, it is my responsibility to find out why and to accept feedback on how to be moreinclusive.
  • I must extend myself to teachers who are different from me (in terms of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, religion, firstlanguage, disability, and other identities). These can be valuable relationships of trust and honest critique.
  • I must listen actively to what students have to say about how they view me.
  • I can always learn more as a student myself, especially of the culture and background of my students. In doing so, I can include my newlearnings into lessons so that students feel included and validated and see how their culture has values.
  • It is easy to blame students for failure. A sensitive teacher must take responsibility for such failure and work extra hard to help thatstudent succeed. Many of the issues having to do with poor achievement may reflect inattention to a student's cultural needs.
  • I can celebrate myself as an educator and total person. I can, and should, also celebrate every moment I spend in self-critique, howeverdifficult and painful, because it will make me a better educator. And that is something to celebrate!

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Course 4: culture for understanding. OpenStax CNX. Mar 13, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10334/1.10
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