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Review questions

What are the human health hazards of vinyl chloride?

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What are the human toxicity values (RfD, CSF) of vinyl chloride and how are these values estimated?

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How do you calculate the dose received by children and adults via ingestion of vinyl chloride-contaminated drinking water under the RME scenario? Please document and explain your assumptions along with your references for the exposure parameters for each receptor of concern

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How do you calculate RME cancer and noncancer risks to children and adults for the above exposure scenario?

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What does excess cancer risk of three cases out of ten thousand exposed (3x10 -4 ) signify?

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If drinking water were also contaminated with benzene, how would you estimate cumulative cancer and noncancer risks associated with exposure to drinking water contaminated with vinyl chloride and benzene for children and adults under the RME scenario?

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References

Burmaster, D.E.&Harris, R.H. (1993). The magnitude of compounding conservatisms in Superfund risk assessments. Risk Analysis , 13 , 131-34.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (1989). Risk assessment guidance for Superfund, volume I: Human health evaluation manual (Part A) (Interim Final) ( EPA/540/1-89002). Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington, DC

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (1990, March 8). National contingency plan. Federal Register , 55 , 8848. Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (1993, September). SI 400: Introduction to risk assessment and risk management for hazardous air pollutants. Air Pollution Training Institute. Environmental Research Center, Research Triangle Park, NC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (1997, August). Exposure factors handbook, volume I – General factors (EPA/600/P-95/002Fa). National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2001, December). Risk assessment guidance for Superfund, volume III – Part A: Process for conducting probabilistic risk assessment (EPA540-R-02-002). Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2002a, December). Supplemental guidance for developing soil screening levels for Superfund sites (OSWER 9355.4-24). Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2002b, September). Child-specific exposure factors handbook (EPA-600-P-00-002B). Interim Report. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2003, December 5). Human health toxicity values in Superfund risk assessments (OSWER Directive 9285.7-53). Memorandum from Michael B. Cook, Director of Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation to Superfund National Policy Managers, Regions 1 – 10. Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2004a, July). Risk assessment guidance for Superfund, volume I: Human health evaluation manual (Part E, supplemental guidance for dermal risk assessment) (EPA/540/R/99/005). Final. Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2004b, April). ProUCL Version 3.00.02 user's guide and software (EPA/600/R04/079). Prepared by Anita Singh and Robert Maichle with Lockheed Martin Environmental Services and Ashok K. Singh of University of Nevada for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Erdal, S. (2007). Case study: Multi-pathway risk assessment for adults and children living near a hazardous waste site. In M.G. Robson&W.A. Toscano (Eds.), Environmental Health Risk Assessment for Public Health (pp. 523-530). Association of Schools of Public Health.

Lilienfeld A.M.&Lilienfeld, D.E. (1980). The French influence on the development of epidemiology. Henry E Sigerist Suppl Bull Hist Med , 4 , 28-42.

NAS (National Academy of Sciences). (1983). Risk assessment in the federal government: Managing the process . National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Sustainability: a comprehensive foundation. OpenStax CNX. Nov 11, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11325/1.43
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