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In this example, a small or medium plant, like S or M, will not be able to compete in the market with a large or a very large plant like L or V, because the firm that operates L or V will be able to produce and sell their output at a lower price. In this example, economies of scale operate up to point L, but beyond point L to V, the additional scale of production does not continue to reduce average costs of production.

Economies of scale

The graph shows declining average costs. The x-axis plots the quantity of production or the scale of the plant and the y-axis plots the average costs. The average cost curve is a declining function, starting at (30, 30) with plant S, declining at a decreasing rate to (150, 10) with plant L, and (200, 10) with plant V, as explained in the text.
Production Plant S, has an average cost of production of $30 per toaster oven. Production plant M has an average cost of production of $20 per toaster oven. Production plant L has an average cost of production of only $10 per toaster oven. Production plant V would still have an average cost of production of $10 per toaster oven. Thus, production plant M can produce toaster ovens more cheaply than plant S because of economies of scale, and plants L or V can produce more cheaply than S or M because of economies of scale. However, the economies of scale end at an output level of 150. Plant V, despite being larger, cannot produce more cheaply on average than plant L.

The concept of economies of scale becomes especially relevant to international trade when it enables one or two large producers to supply the entire country. For example, a single large automobile factory could probably supply all the cars purchased in a smaller economy like the United Kingdom or Belgium in a given year. However, if a country has only one or two large factories producing cars, and no international trade , then consumers in that country would have relatively little choice between kinds of cars (other than the color of the paint and other nonessential options). Little or no competition will exist between different car manufacturers.

International trade provides a way to combine the lower average production costs that come from economies of scale and still have competition and variety for consumers. Large automobile factories in different countries can make and sell their products around the world. If the U.S. automobile market was made up of only General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler, the level of competition and consumer choice would be quite a lot lower than when U.S. carmakers must face competition from Toyota, Honda, Suzuki, Fiat, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Volkswagen, Kia, Hyundai, BMW, Subaru, and others. Greater competition brings with it innovation and responsiveness to what consumers want. America’s car producers make far better cars now than they did several decades ago, and much of the reason is competitive pressure, especially from East Asian and European carmakers.

Dynamic comparative advantage

The sources of gains from intra-industry trade between similar economies—namely, the learning that comes from a high degree of specialization and splitting up the value chain and from economies of scale—do not contradict the earlier theory of comparative advantage. Instead, they help to broaden the concept.

In intra-industry trade, the level of worker productivity is not determined by climate or geography. It is not even determined by the general level of education or skill. Instead, the level of worker productivity is determined by how firms engage in specific learning about specialized products, including taking advantage of economies of scale. In this vision, comparative advantage can be dynamic—that is, it can evolve and change over time as new skills are developed and as the value chain is split up in new ways. This line of thinking also suggests that countries are not destined to have the same comparative advantage forever, but must instead be flexible in response to ongoing changes in comparative advantage.

Key concepts and summary

A large share of global trade happens between high-income economies that are quite similar in having well-educated workers and advanced technology. These countries practice intra-industry trade, in which they import and export the same products at the same time, like cars, machinery, and computers. In the case of intra-industry trade between economies with similar income levels, the gains from trade come from specialized learning in very particular tasks and from economies of scale. Splitting up the value chain means that several stages of producing a good take place in different countries around the world.


From earlier chapters you will recall that technological change shifts the average cost curves. Draw a graph showing how technological change could influence intra-industry trade.

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Consider two countries: South Korea and Taiwan. Taiwan can produce one million mobile phones per day at the cost of $10 per phone and South Korea can produce 50 million mobile phones at $5 per phone. Assume these phones are the same type and quality and there is only one price. What is the minimum price at which both countries will engage in trade?

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U.S. Census Bureau. 2015. “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services: December 2014.” Accessed April 13, 2015. http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/international/trade/2015/pdf/trad1214.pdf.

U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. 2015. “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services February 2015.” Accessed April 10, 2015. https://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/Press-Release/current_press_release/ft900.pdf.

Vernengo, Matias. “What Do Undergraduates Really Need to Know About Trade and Finance?” in Political Economy and Contemporary Capitalism: Radical Perspectives on Economic Theory and Policy , ed. Ron Baiman, Heather Boushey, and Dawn Saunders. M. E. Sharpe Inc, 2000. Armonk. 177-183.

Questions & Answers

List and explain four factors of production
Vuyo Reply
capital labour entrepreneur natural resources
What is supply
Ogodo Reply
when the supply decreases demand also decreases
types of demand and the explanation
akin Reply
what is demand
akin Reply
other things remaining same if demend is increases supply is also decrease and if demend is decrease supply is also increases is called the demand
if the demand increase supply also increases
you are wrong this is the law of demand and not the definition
Demand is the willingness of buy and ability to buy in a specific time period in specific place. Mian you are saying law of demand but not in proper way. you have to keep studying more. because its very basic things in Economics.
what is commercialization?
Doris Reply
How to talk loan for bank?
Alfred Reply
what is the meaning of gpa?
Ritisha Reply
Answer: GPA stands for Grade Point Average. It is a standard way of measuring academic achievement in the U.S. Basically, it goes as follows: Each course is given a certain number of "units" or "credits", depending on the content of the course.
what is small and Microbuisenes
tadesse Reply
What is fiscal policy
Who is the funder of Economic
founder , that is Adam Smith
what is model
Daniel Reply
The wealth of Nations
Yusuf Reply
the wealth of nations, is it the first?
Yes very sure it was released in 1759
thank you Yusuf.
then when did he died?
17 July 1790 Born: 16 June 1723, Kirkcaldy, United Kingdom Place of death: Panmure House, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
that's my today questions, thank you Yusuf it's bed time see u after.
what is fiscal policy
kemigisha Reply
what's mode?
Umar Reply
mode is the highest occurring frequency in a distribution
mode is the most commonly occurring item in a set of data.
Please, what is the difference between monopoly and monopsony?
Olaleye Reply
is there monopsony word?
I have no idea though
please, in which year Adam smith was born?
monopsony is when there's only one buyer while monopoly is when there's only one producer.
who have idea on Banter
like trade by barter?
Monopoly is when there's excessively one seller and there is no entry in the market while monopsony is when there is one buyer
Adam smith was born in 1723
 (uncountable) Good humoured, playful, typically spontaneous conversation. verb (intransitive) To engage in banter or playful conversation. (intransitive) To play or do something amusing. (transitive) To tease mildly.
which book Adam smith published first? the first book of Adam smith pls.
wealth on nation, 1776
what is market power and how can it affect an economy?
Gab Reply
market power:- where a firm is said to be a price setter.market power benefits the powerful at the expense of others.
Market power refers to the ability of a firm (or group of firms) to raise and maintain price above the level that would prevail under competition is referred to as market or monopoly power. The exercise of market power leads to reduced output and loss of economic welfare
find information about the national budget
three branches of economics in which tourism is likely to figure
Makgotso Reply
What are those three branches?

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