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Scarring of skin after wound healing is a natural process and does not need to be treated further. Application of mineral oil and lotions may reduce the formation of scar tissue. However, modern cosmetic procedures, such as dermabrasion, laser treatments, and filler injections have been invented as remedies for severe scarring. All of these procedures try to reorganize the structure of the epidermis and underlying collagen tissue to make it look more natural.

Bedsores and stretch marks

Skin and its underlying tissue can be affected by excessive pressure. One example of this is a decubitis ulcer also known as a bedsore. Decubitis ulcers, are caused by constant, long-term, unrelieved pressure on certain body parts that are bony, reducing blood flow to the area and leading to necrosis (tissue death). Bedsores are most common in elderly patients who have debilitating conditions that cause them to be immobile or to individuals confined to a wheelchair. Most hospitals and long-term care facilities have the practice of turning the patients every few hours to prevent the incidence of bedsores. If left untreated by removal of necrotized tissue, bedsores can be fatal if they become infected.

The skin can also be affected by pressure associated with rapid growth. Striae (singular stria) or stretch mark results when the dermis is stretched beyond its limits of elasticity, as the skin stretches to accommodate the excess pressure. Stretch marks usually accompany rapid weight gain during puberty and pregnancy. They initially have a reddish hue, but lighten over time. Other than for cosmetic reasons, treatment of stretch marks is not required. They occur most commonly over the hips, breasts and abdomen.

Chapter review

Skin cancer is a result of damage to the DNA of skin cells, often due to excessive exposure to UV radiation. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are highly curable, and arise from cells in the stratum basale and stratum spinosum, respectively. Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, affecting melanocytes, which can spread/metastasize to other organs. Burns are an injury to the skin that occur as a result of exposure to extreme heat, radiation, or chemicals. First-degree and second-degree burns usually heal quickly, but third-degree burns can be fatal because they penetrate the full thickness of the skin. Scars occur when there is repair of skin damage. Fibroblasts generate scar tissue in the form of collagen, which forms a basket-weave pattern that looks different from normal skin.

Bedsores and stretch marks are the result of excessive pressure on the skin and underlying tissue. Bedsores are characterized by necrosis of tissue due to immobility, whereas stretch marks result from rapid growth. Eczema is an allergic reaction that manifests as a rash, and acne results from clogged sebaceous glands. Eczema and acne are usually long-term skin conditions that may be treated successfully in mild cases. Calluses and corns are the result of abrasive pressure on the skin.

References

American Cancer Society (US). Skin cancer: basal and squamous cell [Internet]. c2013 [cited 2012 Nov 1]. Available from: (External Link) .

Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford (US). Classification and treatment of burns [Internet]. Palo Alto (CA). c2012 [cited 2012 Nov 1]. Available from: (External Link) .

Mayo Clinic (US). Basal cell carcinoma [Internet]. Scottsdale (AZ); c2012 [cited 2012 Nov 1]. Available from: (External Link) .

Beck, J. FYI: how much can a human body sweat before it runs out? Popular Science [Internet]. New York (NY); c2012 [cited 2012 Nov 1]. Available from: (External Link) .

Skin Cancer Foundation (US). Skin cancer facts [Internet]. New York (NY); c2013 [cited 2012 Nov 1]. Available from: (External Link) .

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Integumentary system. OpenStax CNX. Mar 19, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11770/1.1
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