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Table 6 provides information about specific problems that interns encountered with the webfolio process. While the overwhelming majority of students in the first cohort that implemented webfolios indicated that technology issues were the greatest source of problems, subsequent cohorts report very few issues impeding their usage of the tools.

Specific Problems Interns Encountered
2007-08 2008-09 2009-10
Student expressed information confusion or frustration with process not being streamlined. 1 19 12
Student expressed technology issues as problem or general future of technology in general. 23 24 22
Student expressed the need for more support and training. 9 8 3
Student expressed difficulty with time constraints and workload. 2 5 7
Student expressed the process had no problems. 9 61 49
Student expressed the need for more prompt feedback from professor or site supervisors. 1 2 4
No response 29 0 0
N=74 N=122 N=99

Discussion and lessons learned

Overall, interns indicated positive opinions about the usage of webfolios and viewed the application as an important part of the evaluation of their internship experience and see value in its use towards seeking employment as a school leader. Technology support was often cited as a key variable in the implementation of the project and the need for more presentations and professional development were cited as essential to their successful completion of the process.

While the interns’ feedback provided one view of the webfolios introduction, a discussion of the lessons learned from the faculty viewpoint offers additional areas of focus.

One point of contact and time

Initially, the idea of implementing webfolios was widely accepted by the faculty. Once the idea became a reality, faculty hesitated. After discussions on postponing the implementation one additional year, faculty decided to continue as planned with the condition that one faculty among them coordinate implementation and instructions for use with students and faculty. Having one faculty coordinating the process was an effective tool for full implementation. One reason was that students and faculty felt they had a point person to contact with problems. Another reason was that one faculty coordinator could keep ongoing notes of implementation issues and incorporate needed changes for the second year of implementation. A lesson learned was that even though there was no monetary investment in implementing webfolio there was a large and unexpected time commitment from the faculty coordinator who also was also supervising interns. Therefore, having one point of contact for the application is helpful but release time might be needed.

Change takes time and courage

All faculty need to be familiar with the application and its usage and support. In this pilot study, faculty was learning to use webfolios alongside students but the learning perspectives were different. Students learned to create webfolios while faculty learned to review and provide feedback. Therefore when students looked for their supervisors for technical support the standard approach was to connect students with the coordinator. A lesson learned was to allow time for practice and to provide very clear expectations and processes for the use of the online tool.

Technology issues

Many students completing the principal preparation program at this institution live in rural regions of North Carolina where access to the internet is difficult. Therefore, faculty and students addressed obstacles in order to access adequate levels of technology and support. One particular obstacle was encountered at the monthly seminars held at a local high school. Meetings were typically held in the media center where access to the internet was limited due to the small number of computers and in addition the need for a password to access the internet. Thanks to the collaboration with the school administrators the faculty was able to obtain a temporary password to log on to the internet however there were small numbers of terminals to access. A lesson learned from this experience is the need to meet in a location where Wi-Fi is accessible and where each student has access to a computer. At this point, the faculty is strongly recommending students to bring their laptops with them. In addition, the meeting locations must have computer labs with internet access.


The principal preparation program in this study initiated and designed webfolios for submission of evidences of internship learning experiences during the pilot year 2007-08, and over the past two years (2008-09 and 2009-10) has seen the process evolve from one that was challenging technically and in implementation to one that is highly reflective and useful for student interns and faculty. Implementation and evaluation results over the past three years indicated full implementation by both students and faculty. To evaluate the use of this process over the years student interns and faculty shared their perceptions of the process they experienced. What’s been learned is that this process is continuing to improve, especially in the area of technology and professional development for interns. However, interns are finding that the benefits of this process stem far beyond simple completion of the task and translate into exponential growth as a professional. Current students will also be evaluated and perceptions will be compared to that of the prior groups.


  • Hall, G.E.,&Hord, S.M. (2001). Implementing change: Patterns, principles, and potholes . Needham Heights, MA: Allyn&Bacon.
  • Montgomery, K. K. (2001). Authentic assessment: A guide for elementary teachers . New York: Allan&Bacon.
  • Partnership for 21 st Century skills . (2004). Retrieved from (External Link)&task=view&id=254&Itemid=120
  • Solomon, G.,&Schrum, L. (2007). Web 2.0: New tools, new schools . Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE).
  • Strudler, N.,&Wetzel, K. (Summer 2005). The diffusion of electronic portfolios in teacher education: Issues of initiation and implementation. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 37 (4), pp. 411-433.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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