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The literacy rate for a nation measures the proportion of people age 15 and over who can read and write. The literacy rate for women in Afghanistan is 12%. Let X = the number of Afghani women you ask until one says that she is literate.

  1. What is the probability distribution of X ?
  2. What is the probability that you ask five women before one says she is literate?
  3. What is the probability that you must ask ten women?
  4. Find the (i) mean and (ii) standard deviation of X .
  1. X ~ G (0.12)
  2. P ( X = 5) = geometpdf(0.12, 5) = 0.0720
  3. P ( X = 10) = geometpdf(0.12, 10) = 0.0380
    1. Mean = μ = 1 p = 1 0.12 ≈ 3333
    2. Standard Deviation = σ  = 1 p p 2 = 1 0.12 0.12 2 ≈ 7.8174


“Millennials: A Portrait of Generation Next,” PewResearchCenter. Available online at http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2010/10/millennials-confident-connected-open-to-change.pdf (accessed May 15, 2013).

“Millennials: Confident. Connected. Open to Change.” Executive Summary by PewResearch Social&Demographic Trends, 2013. Available online at http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2010/02/24/millennials-confident-connected-open-to-change/ (accessed May 15, 2013).

“Prevalence of HIV, total (% of populations ages 15-49),” The World Bank, 2013. Available online at http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS?order=wbapi_data_value_2011+wbapi_data_value+wbapi_data_value-last&sort=desc (accessed May 15, 2013).

Pryor, John H., Linda DeAngelo, Laura Palucki Blake, Sylvia Hurtado, Serge Tran. The American Freshman: National Norms Fall 2011. Los Angeles: Cooperative Institutional Research Program at the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA, 2011. Also available online at http://heri.ucla.edu/PDFs/pubs/TFS/Norms/Monographs/TheAmericanFreshman2011.pdf (accessed May 15, 2013).

“Summary of the National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment 2007/8: A profile of Afghanistan,” The European Union and ICON-Institute. Available online at http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/where/asia/documents/afgh_brochure_summary_en.pdf (accessed May 15, 2013).

“The World FactBook,” Central Intelligence Agency. Available online at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html (accessed May 15, 2013).

“UNICEF reports on Female Literacy Centers in Afghanistan established to teach women and girls basic resading [sic] and writing skills,” UNICEF Television. Video available online at http://www.unicefusa.org/assets/video/afghan-female-literacy-centers.html (accessed May 15, 2013).

Chapter review

There are three characteristics of a geometric experiment:

  1. There are one or more Bernoulli trials with all failures except the last one, which is a success.
  2. In theory, the number of trials could go on forever. There must be at least one trial.
  3. The probability, p , of a success and the probability, q , of a failure are the same for each trial.

In a geometric experiment, define the discrete random variable X as the number of independent trials until the first success. We say that X has a geometric distribution and write X ~ G ( p ) where p is the probability of success in a single trial.

The mean of the geometric distribution X ~ G ( p ) is μ = 1 p p 2 = 1 p ( 1 p 1 ) .

Formula review

X ~ G( p ) means that the discrete random variable X has a geometric probability distribution with probability of success in a single trial p .

X = the number of independent trials until the first success

X takes on the values x = 1, 2, 3, ...

p = the probability of a success for any trial

q = the probability of a failure for any trial p + q = 1
q = 1 – p

The mean is μ = 1 p .

The standard deviation is σ = 1     p p 2 = 1 p ( 1 p 1 ) .

Use the following information to answer the next six exercises: The Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA collected data from 203,967 incoming first-time, full-time freshmen from 270 four-year colleges and universities in the U.S. 71.3% of those students replied that, yes, they believe that same-sex couples should have the right to legal marital status. Suppose that you randomly select freshman from the study until you find one who replies “yes.” You are interested in the number of freshmen you must ask.

In words, define the random variable X .

X = the number of freshmen selected from the study until one replied "yes" that same-sex couples should have the right to legal marital status.

X ~ _____(_____,_____)

What values does the random variable X take on?


Construct the probability distribution function (PDF). Stop at x = 6.

x P ( x )

On average ( μ ), how many freshmen would you expect to have to ask until you found one who replies "yes?"


What is the probability that you will need to ask fewer than three freshmen?

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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