# 0.7 Conducting a nonparametric paired samples t-test  (Page 3/3)

 Page 3 / 3

## Step one:

• Compute Measures of Normality for the Dependent Variable
• √ Analyze
• * Descriptive Statistics
• * Frequencies

• √ Move over the dependent (outcome) variable

• √ Statistics
• * Skewness [Note. Skewness refers to the extent to which the data are normally distributed around the mean. Skewed data involve having either mostly high scores with a few low ones or having mostly low scores with a few high ones.] Readers are referred to the following sources for a more detailed definition of skewness: http://www.statistics.com/index.php?page=glossary&term_id=356 and http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/basic-statistics/#Descriptive%20statisticsb
• To standardize the skewness value so that its value can be constant across datasets and across studies, the following calculation must be made: Take the skewness value from the SPSS output and divide it by the Std. error of skewness. If the resulting calculation is within -3 to +3, then the skewness of the dataset is within the range of normality (Onwuegbuzie&Daniel, 2002). If the resulting calculation is outside of this +/-3 range, the dataset is not normally distributed.
• * Kurtosis [Note. Kurtosis also refers to the extent to which the data are normally distributed around the mean. This time, the data are piled up higher than normal around the mean or piled up higher than normal at the ends of the distribution.] Readers are referred to the following sources for a more detailed definition of kurtosis: http://www.statistics.com/index.php?page=glossary&term_id=326 and http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/basic-statistics/#Descriptive%20statisticsb
• To standardize the kurtosis value so that its value can be constant across datasets and across studies, the following calculation must be made: Take the kurtosis value from the SPSS output and divide it by the Std. error of kurtosis. If the resulting calculation is within -3 to +3, then the kurtosis of the dataset is within the range of normality (Onwuegbuzie&Daniel, 2002). If the resulting calculation is outside of this +/-3 range, the dataset is not normally distributed.
• * Continue
• * OK

## Step two:

Check for Skewness and Kurtosis values falling within/without the parameters of normality (-3 to +3). Note that each variable below has its own skewness value and its own kurtosis value. Thus, a total of three standardized skewness coefficients and three standardized kurtosis coefficients can be calculated from information in the table below.

 CH005TC09R CL005TC09R CW005TC09R N Valid 3125 1805 1877 Missing 5197 6517 6445 Skewness -1.129 -.479 -2.197 Std. Error of Skewness .044 .058 .056 Kurtosis 1.818 -.412 6.991 Std. Error of Kurtosis .088 .115 .113
• Standard Coefficients Calculator
• Copy variable #1 and #2 into the skewness and kurtosis calculator

• √ Charts (these are calculated only if you wish to have visual depictions of skewness and of kurtosis-they are not required)
• * Histogram~ with normal curve (not required, optional)

## Step three:

• Calculate Nonparametric Paired Samples t -test on Data

• √ Click on one dependent variable
• * Arrow to send over to Test Pairs, Variable 1
• √ Click on second dependent variable
• * Arrow to send over to Test Pairs, Variable 2
• * OK

## Step four:

• Check for Statistical Significance
 CL005TC09R CH005TC09R Z -34.829 a Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .000
• a. Based on positive ranks.
• b. Wilcoxon Signed Rank test
• Numerical sentence is written as : z = -34.83, p <.001

## Writing up your statistics

So, how do you "write up" your Research Questions and your Results? Schuler W. Huck (2000) in his seminal book entitled, Reading Statistics and Research, points to the importance of your audience understanding and making sense of your research in written form. Huck further states:

This book is designed to help people decipher what researchers are trying to communicate in the written or oral summaries of their investigations. Here, the goal is simply to distill meaning from the words, symbols, tables, and figures included in the research report. To be competent in this arena, one must not only be able to decipher what's presented but also to "fill in the holes"; this is the case because researchers typically assume that those receiving the research report are familiar with unmentioned details of the research process and statistical treatment of data.

Researchers and Professors John Slate and Ana Rojas-LeBouef understand this critical issue, so often neglected or not addressed by other authors and researchers. They point to the importance of doctoral students "writing up their statistics" in a way that others can understand your reporting and as importantly, interpret the meaning of your significant findings and implications for the preparation and practice of educational leadership. Slate and LeBouef provide you with a model for "writing up your nonparametric paired samples t-test."

Click here to view: Writing Up Your Nonparametric Paired Samples t-test Statistics

## References

• Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.) . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erbaum
• Hyperstats Online Statistics Textbook. (n.d.) Retrieved from (External Link)
• Kurtosis. (n.d.). Definition. Retrieved from (External Link)&term_id=326
• Kurtosis. (n.d.). Definition of normality . Retrieved from (External Link)
• Onwuegbuzie, A. J.,&Daniel, L. G. (2002). Uses and misuses of the correlation coefficient. Research in the Schools, 9 (1) , 73-90.
• Skewness. (n.d.) Retrieved from (External Link)&term_id=356
• Skewness. (n.d.). Definition of normality . Retrieved from (External Link)
• StatSoft, Inc. (2011). Electronic statistics textbook. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft. WEB: (External Link)

#### Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

### Read also:

#### Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Source:  OpenStax, Calculating basic statistical procedures in spss: a self-help and practical guide to preparing theses, dissertations, and manuscripts. OpenStax CNX. Apr 28, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11292/1.6
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Calculating basic statistical procedures in spss: a self-help and practical guide to preparing theses, dissertations, and manuscripts' conversation and receive update notifications?

 By OpenStax By David Corey By Rachel Woolard By Madison Christian By Cath Yu By Saylor Foundation By OpenStax By John Gabrieli By Gerr Zen By OpenStax