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A concerned group of citizens wanted to know if the proportion of forcible rapes in Texas was different in 2011 than in 2010. Their research showed that of the 113,231 violent crimes in Texas in 2010, 7,622 of them were forcible rapes. In 2011, 7,439 of the 104,873 violent crimes were in the forcible rape category. Test at a 5% significance level. Answer the following questions:

a. Is this a test of two means or two proportions?

a. two proportions

b. Which distribution do you use to perform the test?

b. normal for two proportions

c. What is the random variable?

c. Subscripts: 1 = 2010, 2 = 2011
P 2 - P 2

d. What are the null and alternative hypothesis? Write the null and alternative hypothesis in symbols.

d. Subscripts: 1 = 2010, 2 = 2011
H 0 : p 1 = p 2 H 0 : p 1 p 2 = 0
H a : p 1 p 2 H a : p 1 p 2 ≠ 0

e. Is this test right-, left-, or two-tailed?

e. two-tailed

f. What is the p -value?

f. p -value = 0.00086

This is a normal distribution curve with mean equal to zero. Both the right and left tails of the curve are shaded. Each tail represents 1/2(p-value) = 0.0004.

g. Do you reject or not reject the null hypothesis?

g. Reject the H 0 .

h. At the ___ level of significance, from the sample data, there ______ (is/is not) sufficient evidence to conclude that ____________.

h. At the 5% significance level, from the sample data, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a difference between the proportion of forcible rapes in 2011 and 2010.

References

Data from Educational Resources , December catalog.

Data from Hilton Hotels. Available online at http://www.hilton.com (accessed June 17, 2013).

Data from Hyatt Hotels. Available online at http://hyatt.com (accessed June 17, 2013).

Data from Statistics, United States Department of Health and Human Services.

Data from Whitney Exhibit on loan to San Jose Museum of Art.

Data from the American Cancer Society. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/index (accessed June 17, 2013).

Data from the Chancellor’s Office, California Community Colleges, November 1994.

“State of the States.” Gallup, 2013. Available online at http://www.gallup.com/poll/125066/State-States.aspx?ref=interactive (accessed June 17, 2013).

“West Nile Virus.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm (accessed June 17, 2013).

Chapter review

Test of two population proportions from independent samples.

  • Random variable: p ^ A p ^ B = difference between the two estimated proportions
  • Distribution: normal distribution

Formula review

Pooled Proportion: p c = x F   +   x M n F   +   n M

Distribution for the differences:
p A p B N [ 0 , p c ( 1 p c ) ( 1 n A + 1 n B ) ]

where the null hypothesis is H 0 : p A = p B  or  H 0 : p A p B = 0.

Test Statistic ( z -score): z = ( p A p B ) p c ( 1 p c ) ( 1 n A + 1 n B )

where the null hypothesis is H 0 : p A = p B  or  H 0 : p A p B = 0.

where

p′ A and p′ B are the sample proportions, p A and p B are the population proportions,

P c is the pooled proportion, and n A and n B are the sample sizes.

Use the following information for the next five exercises. Two types of phone operating system are being tested to determine if there is a difference in the proportions of system failures (crashes). Fifteen out of a random sample of 150 phones with OS 1 had system failures within the first eight hours of operation. Nine out of another random sample of 150 phones with OS 2 had system failures within the first eight hours of operation. OS 2 is believed to be more stable (have fewer crashes) than OS 1 .

Is this a test of means or proportions?

What is the random variable?

P OS1 P OS2 = difference in the proportions of phones that had system failures within the first eight hours of operation with OS 1 and OS 2 .

State the null and alternative hypotheses.

What is the p -value?

0.1018

What can you conclude about the two operating systems?


Use the following information to answer the next twelve exercises. In the recent Census, three percent of the U.S. population reported being of two or more races. However, the percent varies tremendously from state to state. Suppose that two random surveys are conducted. In the first random survey, out of 1,000 North Dakotans, only nine people reported being of two or more races. In the second random survey, out of 500 Nevadans, 17 people reported being of two or more races. Conduct a hypothesis test to determine if the population percents are the same for the two states or if the percent for Nevada is statistically higher than for North Dakota.

Is this a test of means or proportions?

proportions

State the null and alternative hypotheses.

  1. H 0 : _________
  2. H a : _________

Is this a right-tailed, left-tailed, or two-tailed test? How do you know?

right-tailed

What is the random variable of interest for this test?

In words, define the random variable for this test.

The random variable is the difference in proportions (percents) of the populations that are of two or more races in Nevada and North Dakota.

Which distribution (normal or Student's t ) would you use for this hypothesis test?

Explain why you chose the distribution you did for the Exercise 10.56 .

Our sample sizes are much greater than five each, so we use the normal for two proportions distribution for this hypothesis test.

Calculate the test statistic.

Sketch a graph of the situation. Mark the hypothesized difference and the sample difference. Shade the area corresponding to the p -value.

This is a horizontal axis with arrows at each end. The axis is labeled p'N - p'ND

Check student’s solution.

Find the p -value.

At a pre-conceived α = 0.05, what is your:

  1. Decision:
  2. Reason for the decision:
  3. Conclusion (write out in a complete sentence):

  1. Reject the null hypothesis.
  2. p -value<alpha
  3. At the 5% significance level, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that the proportion (percent) of the population that is of two or more races in Nevada is statistically higher than that in North Dakota.

Does it appear that the proportion of Nevadans who are two or more races is higher than the proportion of North Dakotans? Why or why not?

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Statistics i - math1020 - red river college - version 2015 revision a - draft 2015-10-24. OpenStax CNX. Oct 24, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11891/1.8
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