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Finally, principals took the neutral position on whether high stakes testing motivates students to achieve. However, principals reported that students might cheat to improve their test scores and that high stakes testing contributed to students dropping out of school.

References

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Baines, L. A.,&Stanley, G. K. (2004). High stakes hustle: Public schools and the new billion dollar accountability. The Educational Forum, 69 (1), 8-16.

Brockmeier, L. L. Pate, J. L.,&Leech, D. W. (2008, February). Psychometric characteristics of the principal’s high stakes testing survey. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southeast Evaluation Association, Tallahassee, Florida.

Burton, N. W. (1978). Societal standards. Journal of Educational Measurement , 15 , 263 – 271.

Camilli G., Cizek, G. J.,&Lugg, C. A. (2001). Psychometric theory and the validation of performance standards: History, and future perspectives. In G. J. Cizek (Ed.), Setting performance standards: concepts, methods, and perspectives (pp. 445 – 475). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Chrispeels, J. (2004). Learning to lead together: The promise and challenge of sharing leadership . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Cizek, G. J. (2001). Conjectures on the rise and call of standard setting: An introduction to context and practice. In G. J. Cizek (Ed.), Setting performance standards: Concepts, methods, and perspectives . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Davis, S., Darling-Hammond, L., LaPointe, M.,&Meyerson, D. (2005). School leadership study- Developing successful principals. Retrieved September 21, 2008, from the Wallace Foundation website: http://www.wallacefoundation.org/WF.

Driesler, S. D. (2001). Whiplash about backlash. The truth about public support for testing. NCME Newsletter , 9 (3), 2 – 5.

Fremer, J. (2005). Foreword. In R. P. Phelps (Ed.), Defending standardized testing . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Engelhart, M. D. (1950). Examinations. In W. S. Monroe (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational research (pp. 407-414). New York: Macmillan.

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Holland, R. (2001). Indispensible tests: How a value-added approach to school testing could identify and bolster exceptional teaching . Arlington, VA: Lexington Institute.

Hope, W. C., Brockmeier, L. L., Lutfi, G. A.,&Sermon, J. M. (2007, January). High stakes tests influence on principals’ beliefs . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southeast Evaluation Association, Tallahassee, FL.

Kaback, S. (2006). High stakes are for tomatoes: Supporting teachers and students when the growing conditions are poor. Kappa Delta Pi, 42 , 101-103.

Lederman, L. M.,&Burnstein, R. A. (2007). Alternative approaches to high stakes testing. Phi Delta Kappan, 87 (6), 429-432.

Leithwood, K, Louis, K. S., Anderson, S.,&Wahlstrom, K (2004). How leadership influences learning . New York, NY: The Wallace Foundation.

Linn, R. L., Miller, M. D.,&Gronlund, N. E. (2005). Measurement and assessment in teaching 9 th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Lyons, J. E.,&Algozzine, B. (2006). Perceptions of the impact of accountability on the role of principals. Education Policy Analysis Archives , 14 (16), Retrieved February 7, 2007, from http://epaa.sau.edu/v14n16/.

Phelps, R. P. (2003). Kill the messenger: The war on standardized testing . New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 1 (april 2011). OpenStax CNX. Mar 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11285/1.2
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