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Finally, principals took the neutral position on whether high stakes testing motivates students to achieve. However, principals reported that students might cheat to improve their test scores and that high stakes testing contributed to students dropping out of school.

References

Airasian, P. W. (1988). Symbolic validation: The case of state-mandated, high stakes testing Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis , 10 (4), 310-313.

Afflerbach, P. (2005). National reading conference policy brief: High stakes testing and reading assessment. Journal of Literacy Research, 37 , 151-163.

Baines, L. A.,&Stanley, G. K. (2004). High stakes hustle: Public schools and the new billion dollar accountability. The Educational Forum, 69 (1), 8-16.

Brockmeier, L. L. Pate, J. L.,&Leech, D. W. (2008, February). Psychometric characteristics of the principal’s high stakes testing survey. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southeast Evaluation Association, Tallahassee, Florida.

Burton, N. W. (1978). Societal standards. Journal of Educational Measurement , 15 , 263 – 271.

Camilli G., Cizek, G. J.,&Lugg, C. A. (2001). Psychometric theory and the validation of performance standards: History, and future perspectives. In G. J. Cizek (Ed.), Setting performance standards: concepts, methods, and perspectives (pp. 445 – 475). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Chrispeels, J. (2004). Learning to lead together: The promise and challenge of sharing leadership . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Cizek, G. J. (2001). Conjectures on the rise and call of standard setting: An introduction to context and practice. In G. J. Cizek (Ed.), Setting performance standards: Concepts, methods, and perspectives . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Davis, S., Darling-Hammond, L., LaPointe, M.,&Meyerson, D. (2005). School leadership study- Developing successful principals. Retrieved September 21, 2008, from the Wallace Foundation website: http://www.wallacefoundation.org/WF.

Driesler, S. D. (2001). Whiplash about backlash. The truth about public support for testing. NCME Newsletter , 9 (3), 2 – 5.

Fremer, J. (2005). Foreword. In R. P. Phelps (Ed.), Defending standardized testing . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Engelhart, M. D. (1950). Examinations. In W. S. Monroe (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational research (pp. 407-414). New York: Macmillan.

Hamilton, L. (2003). Assessment as a policy tool. Review of Research in Education , 27 , 25-68.

Holland, R. (2001). Indispensible tests: How a value-added approach to school testing could identify and bolster exceptional teaching . Arlington, VA: Lexington Institute.

Hope, W. C., Brockmeier, L. L., Lutfi, G. A.,&Sermon, J. M. (2007, January). High stakes tests influence on principals’ beliefs . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southeast Evaluation Association, Tallahassee, FL.

Kaback, S. (2006). High stakes are for tomatoes: Supporting teachers and students when the growing conditions are poor. Kappa Delta Pi, 42 , 101-103.

Lederman, L. M.,&Burnstein, R. A. (2007). Alternative approaches to high stakes testing. Phi Delta Kappan, 87 (6), 429-432.

Leithwood, K, Louis, K. S., Anderson, S.,&Wahlstrom, K (2004). How leadership influences learning . New York, NY: The Wallace Foundation.

Linn, R. L., Miller, M. D.,&Gronlund, N. E. (2005). Measurement and assessment in teaching 9 th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Lyons, J. E.,&Algozzine, B. (2006). Perceptions of the impact of accountability on the role of principals. Education Policy Analysis Archives , 14 (16), Retrieved February 7, 2007, from http://epaa.sau.edu/v14n16/.

Phelps, R. P. (2003). Kill the messenger: The war on standardized testing . New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Phelps, R. P. (2005). Forty years of public opinion. In R. P. Phelps (Ed.), Defending standardized testing . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Popham, W. J. (1978). As always, provocative. Journal of Educational Measurement , 15 , 297 -300.

Resnick, D. (1982). History of educational testing. In A. K. Wigdor&W. R. Garner (Eds.) Ability testing: Uses, consequences, and controversies (pp.173-194). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Ross, J. A.,&Gray, P. (2006). School leadership and student achievement: The mediating effects of teacher beliefs. Canadian Journal of Education , 29 (3), 798-822.

Scherer, M. (2005). Reclaiming testing. Educational Leadership, 63 , 9.

Stone, J. E. (2003). Preface. In R. P. Phelps (Ed.), Kill the messenger: The war on standardized testing . New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Tyack, D. (1974 ). The one best system: A history of American urban education . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wahlberg, H. J. (2003). Foreword. In R. P. Phelps (Ed.), Kill the messenger: The war on standardized testing . New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Zellner, L.,&Jinkins, D. (2001, December). Consequence of high stakes testing on literary programs of high performing learning communities . Paper presented at the National Reading Conference, San Antonio, TX.

Questions & Answers

Hello who is wilhelm wundt
the father of psychology
Shannon
He is all over CHAPTER 1..he did a lot of things.. he distinguished Psychology from philosophy and made it a science .
Michelle
what does that mean
Cameron Reply
Hello...what does what mean?
Michelle
types of research used
omer Reply
types of research used in today's society
omer
what is honesty
Namwanje Reply
being able to state things just how they're, especially if the only source of facts is one's self.
queefburgler
Healthcare professionals often work in rotating shifts. Why is this problematic? What can be done to deal with potential problems?
Anna Reply
The core problem is the absence Good governance system
Waaya
ONLY BUDGET CONSUMING RATHER THAN WORKING GOOD HEALTH SERVICES FOR COMMUNITY BY LEADERS
Waaya
NO REALITY BUT THERE ARE FALSE BASED REALITY
Waaya
There isn't enough information to give a true response. However, I do agree with Waaya with one thing... and that's everything begins, rises, and falls with Leadership. A proper governance system is key in everyhing from the Macro, to the Micro alike. Without Governance, there is no order, etc.
Jonah
the rotating shifts interwine with their real life problems , causing frequent arguments within a family and could lead to mental illness or a operation between the parents
omer
*seperation
omer
why is stress chronic?
Abhimanyu Reply
working conditions at work today
Namwanje Reply
working conditions at work
Namwanje
I work in Afghanistan. Work conditions are interesting. 😊
Jonah
what's it like where you work?
Jonah
and that's crazy jonah. stay safe e out there
queefburgler
thanks young King. Will do. what's goin on out there in you guy's parts of the world?
Jonah
who gets anxiety disorders and how common are they?
Karen Reply
I have generalized anxiety and I've had it for almost 12 years
Harley
I've had it for idk how long but I finally went and got diagnosed 3 years ago. it's pretty common actually
Shannon
I have anxiety with secondary depression, basically meaning my anxiety spirals into depression and depressive thoughts
Shannon
depression always start with anxiety......after some year when we are unable to tackle the anxiety....the anxiety converted into depression...b
Sahni
becoz in anxiety a person always unable to taking decision and adjustment with situation et all
Sahni
anxiety big ........ structure is as depression after some times years
Sahni
Do you mind if we begin a conversation?
Frank Reply
Not at all, how are you?
Shannon
abt what?
zaynab
I'm totally fine. What about you?
Frank
I'm good, just been studying.
Shannon
Oh,that's pretty good. What have you achieved in your studying?
Frank
what are you guys up to?
queefburgler
I just wanted to have a conversation.
Frank
hitting the books😁👋😂..have a great day everyone 🤗
Michelle
you too Michelle. currently I'm writing a lab report so you could say I'm studying too
queefburgler
Kind of like that. We are having a wonderful day, dude.
Frank
Where are you guys all from?
Frank
I stay in Dubai but originally from Somalia, east Africa
queefburgler
I kind of wanna go to the US after my bachelor's, kinda dont since you guys have that giant orange cheeto thing up in the oval office
queefburgler
But what are you working on?
Frank
currently? I'm doing an organic identification lab report (chemistry)
queefburgler
Unfortunately, i'm really bad at chemistry. Why do you like that? Is there anything that forces you to practice it more and more?
Frank
I'm going to work and then writing a paper for English...we got this...💪😃👍
Michelle
Hi! I'm french
Naomi
I'm from the US, And I wanna leave just because of the orange Cheeto dude
Marco
Oh,Bonjour. I know some words in french.
Frank
Can you help me master that language?
Frank
I'm from Texas currently attending hcc majoring psychology.
Pakayla
and lol Queef.. "the giant orange Cheeto..."
Pakayla
What's the difference between 9/11 and a cow?
Marco
the cow doesnt fly through skyscrapers?
queefburgler
You can't milk a cow for 18 years
Marco
solid.
queefburgler
hi can u eleborate it further?
LEARN Reply
can I get an explanation on the second requirement which was the use of repeatable stimuli?
Daniel Reply
what is psyche
EVANS Reply
psyche is the study of man, man as a being living in the over-world change, responding to thingsand events and other people.
ayman
bhvior n cogntnz....
Hunny
thnkng ptrnz
Hunny
psychology is the study of behavior and mental process
Arooj
something described in the state of a minds being
Carlnisha
That's true
Arooj
YES
ABIOLA
aoa arooj from whr u blong
Hunny
hi
Chandrakant
types of psychology
Clinton
is everyone here belongs to psychology related fields🤔
zaynab
Yes I am
Becca
yea
Odey
yes
JIGNA
behavioural psychology clinical psychology organisational psychology abnormal psychology counselling industrial psychology criminal psychology these all are types of psychology
JIGNA
is any one psychology student ?
JIGNA
i am a psych grad
Gel
Vague to the extent that it sounds like a rhetorical question
keenu
if you want to know the literal meaning of the word, look up Google. Or do provide more info so someone other than you could understand the word in the context that you've come across
keenu
Keenu, what are you talking about?
Becca
Hello I'm anis from Malaysia
Anis
I am strj
Satra
hi
Fred
hello Satra Joy
Fred
Hello
Satra
hey guys
Aditya
welcome everybody
ayman
u 2
Hunny
am in too
Pauline
Hello
Olukunle
Hello
Dungrani
Tell me some facts about developmental psychlogy
Hasham
what is educational psychology? tell me?
Sonai
What does psyche means? soul
Louisiana Reply
psychology= scientific study of the mind and behavior
Louisiana
Associated to outside stimuli or internal.
Rob
she is a goddess
Elizabeth
it is the study of human nature. it is the study of man, man as a being living in an over-changing world, responding to things and events and other people.
ayman
plz sujeest a book.psychological foundetion of education.
Sonai
Cognition is more about knowing. Learning, for instance, changes or at least has some effect on cognitive style. And Constructivism is more of a method or way to know and learn. This is the way I see these concepts. If you may please, tell me, have I got them correct?
Vijay Reply
you have to know the rules of life, follow the scientist and their theories. with that you can measure the truth by yourself. take care of you brother
Will
somebody hv any material related to CBT
Hunny
if hv kindly shr me plz
Hunny
you have everything on internet
Will
i want to understand by dscsn
Hunny
what is episodic memory?
Subhasmita Reply
i don't know
Trish
past memory
Trish
episodic memory is a collection of past personal experiences.
Preet
yes
Nazakat
Try to remember your first day in college(or anywhere). That is your episodic memory. If we discern its characteristics, then obviously its1) Autobiographical, 2)Explicit, meaning it can be expressed verbally, and 3)Retrievable, you can watch that scene on the screen inside your head anytime.
Vijay
that's interesting
Paveethra
yes it is.
mahendra
like watching a season of a show, except it's the show of your life.
Jonah
I just watched the show of my life!!! With deleted scenes(that helps) 🎃
Martin
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 1 (april 2011). OpenStax CNX. Mar 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11285/1.2
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