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Finally, principals took the neutral position on whether high stakes testing motivates students to achieve. However, principals reported that students might cheat to improve their test scores and that high stakes testing contributed to students dropping out of school.

References

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Afflerbach, P. (2005). National reading conference policy brief: High stakes testing and reading assessment. Journal of Literacy Research, 37 , 151-163.

Baines, L. A.,&Stanley, G. K. (2004). High stakes hustle: Public schools and the new billion dollar accountability. The Educational Forum, 69 (1), 8-16.

Brockmeier, L. L. Pate, J. L.,&Leech, D. W. (2008, February). Psychometric characteristics of the principal’s high stakes testing survey. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southeast Evaluation Association, Tallahassee, Florida.

Burton, N. W. (1978). Societal standards. Journal of Educational Measurement , 15 , 263 – 271.

Camilli G., Cizek, G. J.,&Lugg, C. A. (2001). Psychometric theory and the validation of performance standards: History, and future perspectives. In G. J. Cizek (Ed.), Setting performance standards: concepts, methods, and perspectives (pp. 445 – 475). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Chrispeels, J. (2004). Learning to lead together: The promise and challenge of sharing leadership . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Cizek, G. J. (2001). Conjectures on the rise and call of standard setting: An introduction to context and practice. In G. J. Cizek (Ed.), Setting performance standards: Concepts, methods, and perspectives . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Davis, S., Darling-Hammond, L., LaPointe, M.,&Meyerson, D. (2005). School leadership study- Developing successful principals. Retrieved September 21, 2008, from the Wallace Foundation website: http://www.wallacefoundation.org/WF.

Driesler, S. D. (2001). Whiplash about backlash. The truth about public support for testing. NCME Newsletter , 9 (3), 2 – 5.

Fremer, J. (2005). Foreword. In R. P. Phelps (Ed.), Defending standardized testing . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Engelhart, M. D. (1950). Examinations. In W. S. Monroe (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational research (pp. 407-414). New York: Macmillan.

Hamilton, L. (2003). Assessment as a policy tool. Review of Research in Education , 27 , 25-68.

Holland, R. (2001). Indispensible tests: How a value-added approach to school testing could identify and bolster exceptional teaching . Arlington, VA: Lexington Institute.

Hope, W. C., Brockmeier, L. L., Lutfi, G. A.,&Sermon, J. M. (2007, January). High stakes tests influence on principals’ beliefs . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southeast Evaluation Association, Tallahassee, FL.

Kaback, S. (2006). High stakes are for tomatoes: Supporting teachers and students when the growing conditions are poor. Kappa Delta Pi, 42 , 101-103.

Lederman, L. M.,&Burnstein, R. A. (2007). Alternative approaches to high stakes testing. Phi Delta Kappan, 87 (6), 429-432.

Leithwood, K, Louis, K. S., Anderson, S.,&Wahlstrom, K (2004). How leadership influences learning . New York, NY: The Wallace Foundation.

Linn, R. L., Miller, M. D.,&Gronlund, N. E. (2005). Measurement and assessment in teaching 9 th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Lyons, J. E.,&Algozzine, B. (2006). Perceptions of the impact of accountability on the role of principals. Education Policy Analysis Archives , 14 (16), Retrieved February 7, 2007, from http://epaa.sau.edu/v14n16/.

Phelps, R. P. (2003). Kill the messenger: The war on standardized testing . New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Phelps, R. P. (2005). Forty years of public opinion. In R. P. Phelps (Ed.), Defending standardized testing . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

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Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
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Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
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What is meant by 'nano scale'?
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What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
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how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
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Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
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what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
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if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
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Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
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biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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research.net
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sciencedirect big data base
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 1 (april 2011). OpenStax CNX. Mar 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11285/1.2
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