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The knowledge, skill, and behavior required to perform this activity represents a dramatic shift for the systematic training of educational leaders away from the lecture/discussion classroom that characterized educational leadership training for most university programs during the last half of the twentieth century. It doesn’t diminish the importance of knowledge about distributed leadership, but extends this knowledge to an activity that requires an engaged student performing and applying the new learning about distributed leadership in a meaningful way.


Ironically, the argument emerged in the 1940’s that educational leadership preparation was too practitioner oriented. Too many university professors were hired out of K-12 administrative positions and then developed programs oriented around the applied nature of educational leadership. These professors had little trouble distinguishing the importance of an applied curriculum over an academic curriculum. The academic work was about applied practice and the day-to-day running of a school and school district.

The problem with the training of educational leaders, according to practitioners, was that preparation shifted too far in the direction of academic learning during the last half of the twentieth century. The academic culture of the university supported and promoted this orientation to the point of making some programs of educational leadership preparation irrelevant to the practice of school administration in K-12 schools and school districts.

Acquisition of performance ability has again become a recognized expectation to insure that what principals know and can do transfers to the real world of schooling. University preparation is once again connecting academic knowledge to the applied day-to-day responsibility of being a school principal or front line administrator. The match between what professors know and can teach is adding academic and practical value to what principals and superintendents need to know and do for performing their jobs on a day-to-day basis.


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Educational leadership Constituent Council Standards for Advanced Programs in Educational leadership. 2002. Can be found at (External Link)

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Hoyle, J. (2005). The standards movement in educational administration: The quest for respect. In T. Creighton, S. Harris,&Coleman, J. C. (Eds.), Crediting the Past, Challenging the Present, Creating the Future (pp. 23-42). Retrieved May 15, 2008, Can be found at (External Link)

Julliard School (2008). Can be found at (External Link)

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development . Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall.

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National Policy Board for Educational Administration. (2002). Instructions to Implement Standards for Advanced Programs in Educational leadership for Principals, Superintendents, Curriculum Directors, and Supervisors . Can be found at www.npbea.org

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Shipman, N., Queen, J. A.,&Peel, H. A. (2007). Transforming school leadership with ISLLC and ELCC . New York: Eye on Education

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Performance assessment in educational leadership programs; james berry and ronald williamson, editors. OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11122/1.1
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