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The knowledge, skill, and behavior required to perform this activity represents a dramatic shift for the systematic training of educational leaders away from the lecture/discussion classroom that characterized educational leadership training for most university programs during the last half of the twentieth century. It doesn’t diminish the importance of knowledge about distributed leadership, but extends this knowledge to an activity that requires an engaged student performing and applying the new learning about distributed leadership in a meaningful way.

Conclusion

Ironically, the argument emerged in the 1940’s that educational leadership preparation was too practitioner oriented. Too many university professors were hired out of K-12 administrative positions and then developed programs oriented around the applied nature of educational leadership. These professors had little trouble distinguishing the importance of an applied curriculum over an academic curriculum. The academic work was about applied practice and the day-to-day running of a school and school district.

The problem with the training of educational leaders, according to practitioners, was that preparation shifted too far in the direction of academic learning during the last half of the twentieth century. The academic culture of the university supported and promoted this orientation to the point of making some programs of educational leadership preparation irrelevant to the practice of school administration in K-12 schools and school districts.

Acquisition of performance ability has again become a recognized expectation to insure that what principals know and can do transfers to the real world of schooling. University preparation is once again connecting academic knowledge to the applied day-to-day responsibility of being a school principal or front line administrator. The match between what professors know and can teach is adding academic and practical value to what principals and superintendents need to know and do for performing their jobs on a day-to-day basis.

References

Berry, J.,&Beach, R. (2006, August 14). K-12 Leadership and the Educational Administration Curriculum:A Theory of Preparation . Can be found at (External Link)

Council of Chief State School Officers. 2006. Interstate school leaders licensure consortium standards for school leaders. Can be found at (External Link) .

Culbertson, J. A.,&Farquahar, R. H. (1971, January). Preparing educational leaders: Structure of administrative preparation program. UCEA Newsletter , 12(1), 10-13.

Daniels, H. (2001). Vygotsky and pedagogy . London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Dewey, J. (1963). Experience and education . New York: Collier books

Educational leadership Constituent Council Standards for Advanced Programs in Educational leadership. 2002. Can be found at (External Link)

Griffiths, D. E. (1959). Administrative theory . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.

Hoyle, J. (2005). The standards movement in educational administration: The quest for respect. In T. Creighton, S. Harris,&Coleman, J. C. (Eds.), Crediting the Past, Challenging the Present, Creating the Future (pp. 23-42). Retrieved May 15, 2008, Can be found at (External Link)

Julliard School (2008). Can be found at (External Link)

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development . Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall.

Lave, J.&Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning legitimate peripheral participation . New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science; selected theoretical papers . D. Cartwright (ed.). New York: Harper&Row.

Murphy, J. A. (February, 2005). Unpacking the foundations of the ISLLC standards and addressing concerns in the academic community. Educational Administration Quarterly (41)1, 154-191.

Murphy, J. A. (1992). The landscape of leadership preparation . Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press.

National Policy Board for Educational Administration. (2002). Instructions to Implement Standards for Advanced Programs in Educational leadership for Principals, Superintendents, Curriculum Directors, and Supervisors . Can be found at www.npbea.org

Piaget, J. (1958). The growth of logical thinking . Printed in the U.S.: Basic Books.

Rogers, C. R. (1969). Freedom to learn. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing.

Shipman, N., Queen, J. A.,&Peel, H. A. (2007). Transforming school leadership with ISLLC and ELCC . New York: Eye on Education

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Performance assessment in educational leadership programs; james berry and ronald williamson, editors. OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11122/1.1
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