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This module is published by NCPEA Press and is presented as an NCPEA/Connexions publication. Each chapter has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and endorsed by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a significant contribution to the scholarship and practice of education administration. Formatted and edited in Connexions by Theodore Creighton and Brad Bizzell, Virginia Tech and Janet Tareilo, Stephen F. Austin State University.

Writing up your chi-square

    About the Authors

  • John R. Slate is a Professor at Sam Houston State University where he teaches Basic and Advanced Statistics courses, as well as professional writing, to doctoral students in Educational Leadership and Counseling. His research interests lie in the use of educational databases, both state and national, to reform school practices. To date, he has chaired and/or served over 100 doctoral student dissertation committees. Recently, Dr. Slate created a website, Writing and Statistical Help to assist students and faculty with both statistical assistance and in editing/writing their dissertations/theses and manuscripts.
  • Ana Rojas-LeBouef is a Literacy Specialist at the Reading Center at Sam Houston State University where she teaches developmental reading courses. She recently completed her doctoral degree in Reading, where she conducted a 16-year analysis of Texas statewide data regarding the achievement gap. Her research interests lie in examining the inequities in achievement among ethnic groups. Dr. Rojas-LeBouef also assists students and faculty in their writing and statistical needs on the Writing and Statistical website, Writing and Statistical Help

The following is an example of how to write up (in manuscript text) your Chi-Square statistics. This module is used with a larger Collection (Book) authored by John R. Slate and Ana Rojas-LeBouef from Sam Houston State University and available at: Calculating Basic Statistical Procedures in SPSS: A Self-Help and Practical Guide to Preparing Theses, Dissertations, and Manuscripts

Gender Differences in Reading Group Membership

Research question

The following research question was addressed in this investigation: What is the difference between boys and girls in their reading group membership?


To ascertain whether a difference was present in reading group membership (i.e., Excellent, Good, Extremely Poor) between boys and girls, a Pearson chi-square was conducted. This statistical procedure was viewed as the optimal statistical procedure to use because frequency data were present for reading group membership and for gender. As such, chi-squares are the statistical procedure of choice when both variables are categorical. In addition, with the large sample size, the available sample size per cell was more than five. Therefore, the assumptions for utilizing a chi-square were met.

For this research question in which the focus was placed on reading group membership between boys and girls, the result was statistically significant, χ 2 (2) = 122.86, p <.001. The effect size for this finding, Cramer’s V , was moderate, .32 (Cohen, 1988). As can be seen in Table 1, 47.30% of the girls were in the Excellent Reader group, compared to only 21.4% of the boys. Most of the boys were in the Extremely Poor Reader group, 57.40%, compared to only 27.30% of the girls.


  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.) . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
To be compliant with APA 6th edition, students and faculty are to be aware that Table titles are placed "above" the table entry. Titles here are placed below the tables because of special formatting templates and for conciseness of visual presentation.
Frequencies and Percentages of Reading Group Membership by Gender
Reading Group Girls n and %ageof Total Boys n and %ageof Total
Excellent Reader 47.30% ( n = 279) 21.40% ( n = 126)
Good Reader 25.40% ( n = 150) 21.20% ( n = 125)
Extremely Poor Reader 27.30% ( n = 161) 57.40% ( n = 338)

Spss statistical output

Tables 2, 3, and 4 below came directly from SPSS output. As such, they are not compliant with APA 6th edition and should not be used in theses, dissertations, or manuscripts. Only Table 1above the Output from SPSS is compliant with APA format.
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 137.38.
Chi-square tests
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 122.856 a 2 .000
Likelihood ratio 125.706 2 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 121.427 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 1179
Symmetric measures
Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi .323 .000
Cramer's V .323 .000
N of Valid Cases 1179
Gender of persons in study
Excellent Reader Good Reader Extremely Poor Reader Total
Gender of Persons in Study Boys Count 126 125 338 589
% within Gender 21.4% 21.2% 57.4% 100%
Girls Count 279 150 161 590
% within Gender 47.3% 25.4% 27.3% 100%
Total Count 405 275 499 1179
% of total 34.4% 23.3% 42.3% 100%

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Presenting and communicating your statistical findings: model writeups. OpenStax CNX. Apr 27, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11299/1.3
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