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x = 2 π - θ = 2 π - π 3 = 5 π 3

Problem : Find angles in [0,2π], if

cot x = 1 3

Solution : Considering only the magnitude of numerical value, we have :

cot θ = 1 3 = cot π 3

Thus, required acute angle is π/3. Now, cotangent function is positive in first and third quadrants. Looking at the value diagram, the angle in third quadrant is :

x = π + θ = π + π 3 = 4 π 3

Hence angles are π/3 and 4π/3.

Negative angles

When we consider angle as a real number entity, we need to express angles as negative angles as well. The corresponding negative angle (y) is obtained as :

y = x - 2 π

Thus, negative angles corresponding to 4π/3 and 5π/3 are :

y = 4 π 3 - 2 π = - 2 π 3 y = 5 π 3 - 2 π = - π 3

We can also find negative angle values using a separate negative value diagram (see figure). We draw negative value diagram by demarking quadrants with corresponding angles and writing angle values for negative values. We deduct “2π” from the relation for positive value diagram.

Trigonometric value diagram

Trigonometric value diagram for negative angles

Let us consider sinx = -√3/2 again. The acute angle in first quadrant is π/3. Sine is negative in third and fourth quadrants. The angles in these quadrants are :

y = - π + θ = - π + π 3 = - 2 π 3 y = - θ = - π 3

Trigonometric equations

Zeroes of sine and cosine functions

Trigonometric equations are formed by equating trigonometric functions to zero. The solutions of these equations are :

1 : sin x = 0 x = n π ; n Z

2 : cos x = 0 x = 2 n + 1 π 2 ; n Z

Definition of other trigonometric functions

We define other trigonometric functions in the light of zeroes of sine and cosine as listed above :

tan x = sin x cos x ; x 2 n + 1 π 2 ; n Z cot x = cos x sin x ; x n π ; n Z cosec x = 1 sin x ; x n π ; n Z sec x = 1 cos x ; x 2 n + 1 π 2 ; n Z

Trigonometric equations

Trigonometric function can be used to any other values as well. Solutions of such equations are given here without deduction for reference purpose. Solutions of three equations involving sine, cosine and tangent functions are listed here :

1. Sine equation

sin x = a = sin y

x = n π + - 1 n y ; n Z

2. Cosine equation

cos x = a = cos y

x = 2 n π ± y ; n Z

3. Tangent equation

tan x = a = tan y

x = n π + y ; n Z

In order to understand the working with trigonometric equation, let us consider an equation :

sin x = - 3 2

As worked out earlier, -√3/2 is sine value of two angles in the interval [0, π]. Important question here is to know which angle should be used in the solution set. Here,

sin 4 π 3 = sin 5 π 3 = - 3 2

We can write general solution using either of two values.

x = n π + - 1 n 4 π 3 ; n Z x = n π + - 1 n 5 π 3 ; n Z

The solution sets appear to be different, but are same on expansion. Conventionally, however, we use the smaller of two angles which lie in the interval [0, π]. In order to check that two series are indeed same, let us expand series from n=-4 to n=4,

For x = n π + - 1 n 4 π 3 ; n Z

- 4 π + 4 π 3 = - 8 π 3 , - 3 π - 4 π 3 = - 13 π 3 , - 2 π + 4 π 3 = - 2 π 3 , - π - 4 π 3 = - 7 π 3 ,

0 + 4 π / 3 = 4 π 3 , π - 4 π 3 = - π 3 , 2 π + 4 π 3 = 10 π 3 , 3 π - 4 π 3 = 5 π 3 , 4 π + 4 π 3 = 16 π 3

Arranging in increasing order :

- 13 π 3 , - 8 π 3 , - 7 π 3 , - 2 π 3 , - π 3 , 4 π 3 , 5 π 3 , 10 π 3 , 16 π 3

For x = n π + - 1 n 5 π 3 ; n Z

- 4 π + 5 π 3 = - 7 π 3 , - 3 π - 5 π 3 = - 14 π 3 , - 2 π + 5 π 3 = - π 3 , - π - 5 π 3 = - 8 π 3 ,

0 + 5 π 3 = 5 π 3 , π - 5 π 3 = - 2 π 3 , 2 π + 5 π 3 = 11 π 3 , 3 π - 5 π 3 = 4 π 3 , 4 π + 5 π 3 = 17 π 3

Arranging in increasing order :

- 14 π 3 , - 8 π 3 , - 7 π 3 , - 2 π 3 , - π 3 , 4 π 3 , 5 π 3 , 11 π 3 , 17 π 3

We see that there are common terms. There are, however, certain terms which do not appear in other series. We can though find those missing terms by evaluating some more values. For example, if we put n = 6 in the second series, then we get the missing term -13π/3. Also, putting n=5,7, we get 10π/3 and 16π/3. Thus, all missing terms in second series are obtained. Similarly, we can compute few more values in first series to find missing terms. We, therefore, conclude that both these series are equal.

Problem : Find solution of equation :

2 cos 2 x + 3 sin x = 0

Solution : Our objective here is to covert equation to linear form. Here, we can not convert sine term to cosine term, but we can convert cos 2 x in terms of sin 2 x .

2 1 - sin 2 x + 3 sin x = 0 2 - 2 sin 2 x + 3 sin x = 0 2 sin 2 x 3 sin x 2 = 0

It is a quadratic equation in sinx. Factoring, we have :

2 sin 2 x + sin x 4 sin x 2 = 0 sin x 2 sin x + 1 2 2 sin x + 1 = 0 2 sin x + 1 sin x 2 = 0

Either, sinx=-1/2 or sinx = 2. But sinx can not be equal to 2. hence,

sin x = - 1 2 = sin π + π 6 = sin 7 π 6 x = n π + - 1 n 7 π 6 ; n Z

Note : We shall not work with any other examples here as purpose of this module is only to introduce general concepts of angles, identities and equations. These topics are part of separate detailed study.

Trigonometric identities

Reciprocal identities

Reciprocals are defined for values of x for which trigonometric function in the denominator is not zero.

sin x = 1 cosec x ; cos x = 1 sec x ; tan x = 1 cot x ; cosec x = 1 sin x ; sec x = 1 cos x ; cot x = 1 tan x

Negative angle identities

cos - x = cos x ; sin - x = - sin x ; tan - x = - tan x

Pythagorean identities

cos 2 x + sin 2 x = 1 ; 1 + tan 2 x = sec 2 x ; 1 + cot 2 x = cosec 2 x

Sum/difference identities

sin x ± y = sin x cos y ± sin y cos x cos x ± y = cos x cos y sin x sin y tan x ± y = tan s x ± tan y / 1 tan x tan y ; x,y and (x+y) are not odd multiple of π/2 cot x ± y = cot x cot y 1 / cot y ± cot x ; x,y and (x+y) are not odd multiple of π/2

Double angle identities

sin 2 x = 2 sin x cos x = 2 tan x 1 + tan 2 x cos 2 x = cos 2 x - sin 2 x = 2 cos 2 x - 1 = 1 - 2 sin 2 x = 1 - tan 2 x 1 + tan 2 x tan 2 x = 2 tan x 1 - tan 2 x cot 2 x = cot 2 x - 1 2 cot x

Triple angle identities

sin 3 x = 3 sin x 4 sin 3 x cos 3 x = 4 cos 3 x 3 cos x tan 3 x = 3 tan x tan 3 x 1 - 3 tan 2 x cot 3 x = 3 cot x cot 3 x 1 - 3 cot 2 x

Power reduction identities

sin 2 x = 1 - cos 2 x 2 cos 2 x = 1 + cos 2 x 2 sin 3 x = 3 sin x sin 3 x 4 cos 3 x = cos 3 x + 3 cos x 4

Product to sum identities

2 sin x cos y = sin x + y + sin x - y 2 cos x sin y = sin x + y - sin x - y 2 cos x cos y = cos x + y + cos x - y 2 sin x sin y = - cos x + y + cos x - y = cos x - y - cos x + y

Sum to product identities

sin x + sin y = 2 sin x + y 2 cos x - y 2 sin x - sin y = 2 cos x + y 2 sin x - y 2 cos x + cos y = 2 cos x + y 2 cos x - y 2 cos x - cos y = - 2 sin x + y 2 sin x - y 2 = 2 sin x + y 2 sin y - x 2

Half angle identities

sin x 2 = ± { 1 - cos x 2 } cos x 2 = ± { 1 + cos x 2 } tan x 2 = cosec x cot x = ± { 1 cos x 1 + cos x } = sin x 1 + cos x = 1 cos x sin x cot x 2 = cosec x + cot x = ± { 1 + cos x 1 cos x } = sin x 1 cos x = 1 + cos x sin x

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
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LITNING Reply
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LITNING Reply
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LITNING
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Sahil
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Bob Reply
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Bob
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brayan
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Damian
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Renato
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Adin Reply
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Kyle
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Adin
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Kyle
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Joe
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Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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s. Reply
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NANO
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Lily
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Devang Reply
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s.
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Tarell
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Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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CYNTHIA
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Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x
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Source:  OpenStax, Functions. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10464/1.64
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