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Social sciences

Geography

Grade 8

Mapwork

Module 16

Reading contour patterns on a topographic map

a) A STEEP SLOPE AND A GRADUAL SLOPE

In the case of a gradual slope, the contour lines are far apart.

In the case of a steep slope, the contour lines are closer to one another.

b) A CONVEX AND CONCAVE SLOPE

c) A FLAT-TOPPED MOUNTAIN (MESA)

A large, flat, table-like top is distinguishable.

d) A FLAT-TOPPED HILL (BUTTE) AND POINTED HILLS

Pointed hill

Flat-topped hill

In the case of pointed hills, the contours are nearly circular and at equal distances from one another. The contours with the highest height values are in the middle.

In the case of a flat-topped hill, the inner two or three contours will be close together. The innermost contour has the highest value, but encloses a larger, oval area (the table).

e) A CLIFF OR WATERFALL

Where two or three contour lines lie together, a perpendicular cliff is indicated. This occurs in mountainous regions.

When a river is precipitated over such a cliff, a waterfall is created.

f) MOUNTAIN RANGES

The highest contour values in mountain ranges are also in the middle of the pattern of contours, but high peaks will have separate points. Rivers could occur here.

g) A POORT AND NECK

Poort

Neck

When a river runs through a narrow opening in a mountain range, such an opening is referred to as a poort. The cliffs/precipices are very steep, so contours are close together on the map.

A neck occurs where a lower point that is still much higher than the surrounding area occurs between two hills.

h) A RIVER VALLEY AND A SPUR

A spur is formed between two river valleys.

In the case of a river valley, the greatest height is to the outer side and the land sinks down towards the inner side, where the riverbed is.

In the case of a spur, the greatest height is to the inner side and the land sinks down towards the outer side of the spur.

All of the above landforms will not occur on all topographic maps, but many of them will occur on such maps. Practising to read topographic maps will enable the map-reader to recognise these features easily.

ACTIVITY:

[LO 1.4]

1. Build a model to represent contours.

a) Copy the various contours by means of tracing paper.

b) Collect cardboard boxes and cut each of the shapes formed by the individual contours from the cardboard.

c) Start by cutting out the shape formed by the lowest contour (400 m) and repeat the cutting out for each of the contours.

d) Arrange the cardboard sheets representing contour areas as in the figure and paste them together.

  1. You could finish this model by applying Plaster of Paris to create a relief model showing different landforms.

Assessment

Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
Geographical EnquiryThe learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
  • identifies and selects a variety of
geographical and environmental sourcesthat are relevant to the research;
  • interprets information from maps and
atlases, as well as graphic and statisticalsources;
  • calculates distance from maps and
compares it to real distance;
  • identifies physical features and features
created by people and aerial photographsand maps.

Memorandum

ACTIVITY:

  1. Different topographical sketch-maps can be given to different groups. Different contour models are then built and evaluated per group.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11036/1.1
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