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GDP/Person in Wales as % of Great Britain GDP, selected years (Crafts 2005).

The pressure on manufacturing and basic industries continued with the closure or relocation out of Wales of many inward investors and the termination of steel production at Llanwern. In the period between 1998 and 2003 Wales as a whole lost 57,000 manufacturing jobs. This has again raised the question of how ‘embedded’ multinationals are (or were) in the Welsh economy, with the suggestion that the presence of functions beyond assembly such as research and development would improve embeddedness (Phelps et al. 2003).

In addition to the continued pressure on manufacturing, the supply of FDI opportunities available was starting to fall during the end of the 1990s due to a slow-down in the global economy (Young et al. 1994) and the emergence of new attractions for FDI, most notably in China and India (Chen 1996). Despite the emergence of these low cost competitors it is observed that wage rate versus skills level remains an issue, working in favour of the relatively better skilled workforces of developed nations (Wei et al. 1999). Furthermore another factor which also hampers future growth for the region is an aging population, which though not a unique regional challenge, does feature worse than for the country as a whole (EU 2005).

These challenges meant the problems of the new millennium would not be fixed by the same solution of solely attracting foreign investment by cheap labour and access to markets used at the end of the last century.

Rationale

At the end of the twentieth Century much of the Welsh economy was significantly trailing behind, such that GDP was only 73% of the European average (WEFO 2004) meaning that parts Wales qualified for ‘Objective One’ assistance ( [link] ). This level of assistance represented the highest level of aid provided by the EU and was targeted at regions with GDP below 75% of the EU average ( [link] ).

Objective One Areas in Wales (EU 2004).
Objective One Areas in the EU (EU 2004a).

The fact that not all of Wales qualifies for such assistance reflects the variation in prosperity across the country. This is highlighted by the fact that disposable incomes in the Vale of Glamorgan are as high as those in the more affluent parts of Bath and Bristol across the bridge, while the mining communities of the Valleys just a few miles from the other side of the M4 remain as impoverished as the most deprived parts of Inner London (Lovering 1999).

The reasons for this poor relative performance were structural dependence upon low value added activities, low productivity in certain sectors and high levels of unemployment within an overall low level of economic participation. Objective One funding came about thanks to the creation of a new statistical region ‘West Wales and the Valleys’ that presented and highlighted the economic woes of this part of Wales (Cameron et al. 2002). The value of this assistance totalled some £1.2bn in grant aid – to be match funded from other sources.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, A study of how a region can lever participation in a global network to accelerate the development of a sustainable technology cluster. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11417/1.2
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