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Geskiedenis

Graad 4

Hoe vervoer die mensdom gedien het

Module 11

Die ontwikkeling van padvervoer tot vandag

Mettertyd het dit nodig geword om in en om Mooimeisiesfontein goeie paaie vir die baie karre en waens te bou.

Aktiwiteit 1

Om bronne te gebruik [lu 1.2]

Dis hoe Mooimeisiesfontein se hoofstraat in 1930 gelyk het . . .

A)ondersoek meegaande skets en beantwoord die volgende vrae oor die prente hierbo:

  1. Hoeveel verskillende voertuie sien jy?

.......................................................................................................................

  1. Watter voertuie word nog in jou omgewing gebruik?.......................................

.......................................................................................................................

  1. Hoekom was dit makliker vir perde om ‘n trein op ‘n spoor as in die pad te trek?

.......................................................................................................................

  1. Wat het die verskillende voertuie laat beweeg?

.......................................................................................................................

  1. Hoe is paaie destyds gebou?

.....................................................................................................................

  1. Watter maniere is gebruik om berge en riviere oor te steek?

.....................................................................................................................

  1. Watter toerusting word vandag gebruik om paaie in jou omgewing te bou?

......................................................................................................................

Interessante feite!

In 1885 het die Duitser, Carl Benz, ‘n motor met ‘n petrol-enjin gebou. Dit kon ‘n topspoed van omtrent 18 km per uur behaal! Oupa sê die eerste motor het eers in 1897 in ons land aangekom. Toe is motors nie op groot skaal in fabrieke gebou nie. Elkeen is spesiaal vir ‘n ryk persoon gebou. Mettertyd is goedkoper motors, soos oupa se Model T-Ford, egter in fabrieke gebou.

Aktiwiteit 2

Om tussen verskillende tydperke [lu 2.3]

A)bestudeer meegaande skets. gesels nou met mekaar hoe vervoer daagliks ontwikkel.

Hoekom is die motor so ‘n gerieflike vervoermiddel?

Hoekom sal dit beter wees as meer mense met busse werk toe gaan?

Paaie word deesdae al hoe meer van t . . . .. r of b . . . . .n gebou.

Wat noem ons goeie paaie wat tussen groot stede gebou word (n . . . . . . e paaie)?

Mooimeisiesfontein vandag

B)klasuitstappie vir julle!

  • Vra jou onderwyser om julle na ‘n besige pad of straat te vat sodat julle ‘n verkeerstelling kan doen. Soos jy reeds weet, verskil vervoer tydens verskillende tydperke. Stel nou vas of dit op verskillende tye van die dag ook verskil.
  • Trek ‘n tabel in jou skryfboek en vul dan die nodige inligting in.
  • Werk ‘n uur lank in pare. Tel die voertuie wat in al twee rigtings verby ‘n sekere punt beweeg.

Rapporteer in die klas oor die volgende:

- Gedurende watter tyd ry die meeste mense werk toe en terug?

- Ons noem sulke verkeer s . . . . . sverkeer.

- Watter soort voertuie word die meeste gebruik op die verskillende tye. Waarom?

C)debat!

  • Watter een, motorfietse of minibusse, word meer in spitstyd gebruik?

Assessering

Leeruitkoms 1: geskiedkundige ondersoek

Die leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om die verlede en die hede te ondersoek.

Assesseringstandaard

Dis duidelik wanneer die leerder

1.2 vrae beantwoord: inligting uit bronne gebruik om vrae te beantwoord.

Leeruitkoms 2: geskiedkundige kennis en begrip

Die leerder is in staat om geskiedkundige kennis en begrip te toon.

Assesseringstandaard

Dis duidelik wanneer die leerder

  • ooreenkomste en verskille: ooreenkomste en verskille tussen die verlede en hede identifiseer oor hoe dinge gedoen is binne ‘n bepaalde konteks.

Memorandum

a). (1) 5

  1. Eie antwoorde
  2. Spoorlyn was veel meer glad en gelyk as destydse paaie.
  1. Laat leerders eie antwoorde gee. Die trem loop op ysterspore – getrek deur perde. (SA se eerste trem is in 1863 in gebruik geneem tussen Kaapstad en Groenpunt. Vrouens het binne-in gesit en mans bo-op.)

Fietse het in die laat 1800’s in SA gewild geraak – sonder vere, buitebande, ratte.

  1. In die 1600’s en 1700’s was paaie in SA net wielspore – en ook geen brûe nie. Mense het gestap, op perde gery of ossewaens gebruik. Teen 1820 was die hoofroete in SA tussen Kaapstad en Grahamstad ná die koms van die Setlaars. Gevangenes is dikwels gebruik om paaie te bou. Lees die verhaal van Andrew Bain, SA se mees bekende vroeëre padbouer.
  2. Laat leerders self antwoorde uitdink.
  1. Sedert 1935 kry baie gruispaaie ‘n oppervlak van teer of sement. Dit is veronderstel om ongeveer 20 jaar te hou.
  2. Teer of baksteen, nasionale paaie

b) Spitsverkeer

Questions & Answers

marginal cost formula
Nandu Reply
you should differentiate the total cost function in order to get marginal cost function then you can get marginal cost from it
boniphace
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Theresia Reply
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Priyanka Reply
what is ceteris parabus
Priyanka
Ceteris paribus - Literally, "other things being equal"; usually used in economics to indicate that all variables except the ones specified are assumed not to change.
Abdullah
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scor
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kafui
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scor
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owusu
it's a summary of opportunity cost depicted on a curve.
okhiria
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igwe Reply
disaster management cycle
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igwe
Fedric Wilson Taylor also define management as the act of knowing what to do and seeing that it is done in the best and cheapest way
OLANIYI
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Ugyen Reply
microeconomics is the study of individual units, firm and government while macroeconomics is the study of the economic aggregates.
okhiria
The classical theory of full employment
Lovely
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Adzaho Reply
the situation that prevails when economic forces balance so that economic variables neither increase nor decrease
Bombey
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Kabir
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salihu Reply
Economics is important because it helps people understand how a variety of factors work with and against each other to control how resources such as labor and capital get used, and how inflation, supply, demand, interest rates and other factors determine how much you pay for goods and services.
Muhammad
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ALIMAMY
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Effah Reply
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Is the degree to the degree of responsiveness of a change in quantity supplied of goods to a change in price
Afran
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Humaira
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scor
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the proces of using the services of labor and equipmnt together with other in puts to make goods and services availble
Bombey
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scor
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
Mapo Reply
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
Mapo Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geskiedenis graad 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 17, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11090/1.1
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