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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (xps)

XPS confirms the presence of different elements in functionalized SWNTs. This is useful for identification of heteroatom elements such as F and N, and then XPS can be used for quantification with simple substituent groups and used indirectly. Deconvolution of XPS is useful to study fine structures on SWNTs. However, the overlapping of binding energies in the spectrum complicates quantification.


Raman spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy is very informative and important for characterizing functionalized SWNTs. The tangential G mode ( ca . 1550 – 1600 cm -1 ) is characteristic of sp 2 carbons on the hexagonal graphene network. The D-band, so-called disorder mode (found at ca . 1295 cm -1 ) appears due to disruption of the hexagonal sp 2 network of SWNTs. The D-band was largely used to characterize functionalized SWNTs and ensure functionalization is covalent and occurred at the sidewalls. However, the observation of D band in Raman can also be related to presence of defects such as vacancies, 5-7 pairs, or dopants. Thus, using Raman to provide evidence of covalent functionalization needs to be done with caution. In particular, the use of Raman spectroscopy for a determination of the degree of functionalization is not reliable.

It has been shown that quantification with Raman is complicated by the distribution of functional groups on the sidewall of SWNTs. For example, if fluorinated-SWNTs (F-SWNTs) are functionalized with thiol or thiophene terminated moieties, TGA shows that they have similar level of functionalization. However, their relative intensities of D:G in Raman spectrum are quite different. The use of sulfur substituents allow for gold nanoparticles with 5 nm in diameter to be attached as a “chemical marker” for direct imaging of the distribution of functional groups. AFM and STM suggest that the functional groups of thio-SWNTs are group together while the thiophene groups are widely distributed on the sidewall of SWNTs. Thus the difference is not due to significant difference in substituent concentration but on substituent distribution, while Raman shows different D:G ratio.

Infra red spectroscopy

IR spectroscopy is useful in characterizing functional groups bound to SWNTs. A variety of organic functional groups on sidewall of SWNTs have been identified by IR, such as COOH(R), -CH 2 , -CH 3 , -NH 2 , -OH, etc. However, it is difficult to get direct functionalization information from IR spectroscopy. The C-F group has been identified by IR in F-SWNTs. However, C-C, C-N, C-O groups associated with the side-wall functionalization have not been observed in the appropriately functionalized SWNTs.

Uv/visible spectroscopy

UV/visible spectroscopy is maybe the most accessible technique that provides information about the electronic states of SWNTs, and hence functionalization. The absorption spectrum shows bands at ca . 1400 nm and 1800 nm for pristine SWNTs. A complete loss of such structure is observed after chemical alteration of SWNTs sidewalls. However, such information is not quantitative and also does not show what type of functional moiety is on the sidewall of SWNTs.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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