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Scottish chemist Thomas Charles Hope (1766 - 1844).

Barium

Barium minerals were known by alchemists in the early Middle Ages. Stones of the mineral barite found in Bologna, Italy (also known as Bologna stones ), were known to glow after exposure to light. Carl Scheele ( [link] ) identified barite in 1774, but did not isolate barium. Barium was first isolated as Ba 2+ in solution by Sir Humphry Davy ( [link] ) in 1808. The oxidized barium was at first called barote , by Guyton de Morveau, ( [link] ) which was changed by Antoine Lavoisier ( [link] ) to baryta , from which barium was derived to describe the metal.

German-Swedish pharmaceutical chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742 - 1786). Author Isaac Asimov has called him "hard-luck Scheele" because he made a number of chemical discoveries before others who are generally given the credit.
French chemist and politician Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau (1737 - 1816) changed his name to Guyton-Morveau after the French Revolution.
French chemist and biologist Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (1743 – 1794).

Radium

Radium was discovered by Marie Curie ( [link] ) and her husband Pierre ( [link] ) in 1898 while studying pitchblende. After removing uranium they found that the remaining material was still radioactive. They then separated out a radioactive mixture consisting mostly of barium and an element that gave crimson spectral lines that had never been documented before. In 1910, radium was isolated as a pure metal by Curie and André-Louis Debierne ( [link] ) through the electrolysis of a radium chloride solution by using a mercury cathode and distilling in an atmosphere of hydrogen gas.

Marie Curie (1867-1934). Copyright Academy of Achievement.
French physicist Pierre Curie (1859 – 1906).
French chemist André-Louis Debierne (1874 - 1949).

Abundance

The abundance of the alkaline earth elements is given in [link] . Beryllium is rare, but found in the mineral beryl (Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 ). While magnesium is widespread within the Earth's crust, commercial sources tend to be from sea water as well as the carbonate minerals magnesite (MgCO 3 ) and dolomite [(Ca,Mg)CO 3 ]. Calcium is also commonly found as the carbonate, however, strontium and barium are present as the sulphates celestine (SrSO 4 ) and barites (BaSO 4 ), respectively.

Abundance of alkaline earth elements.
Element Terrestrial abundance (ppm)
Be 2.6 (Earth’s crust), 6 (soil), 2 x 10 -7 (sea water)
Mg 23,000 (Earth’s crust), 10,000 (soil), 1,200 (sea water)
Ca 41,000 (Earth’s crust), 20,000 (soil), 400 (sea water)
Sr 370 (Earth’s crust), 200 (soil), 8 (sea water)
Ba 500 (Earth’s crust), 500 (soil), 0.001 (sea water)
Ra 6 x 10 -7 (Earth’s crust), 8 x 10 -7 (soil), 1 x 10 -10 (sea water)

Calcium is a key element for living. Not only is it present as the skeletal material for shell fish and crabs (CaCO 3 ) its phosphate derivative, hydroxyapetite [Ca 5 (OH)(PO 4 ) 3 ] is the structural material of bones and teeth. Calcium is also present in soft tissue at a level of ca. 22g/kg. Calcium is a vital metal for the following:

  • Links large molecules together.
  • Used in the activation of muscles
  • Used in enzyme activation by stabilization of particular conformations of proteins to be acted upon by enzymes.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
waht is hydrating power of lithium carbonates
Mahar Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of the main group elements. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11124/1.25
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